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- An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking,
- feeling, and acting
Pop culture of personality came from...
Fred's theories of personality
explain Freds Model of Mind The mind is like an iceberg...
- Mostly hidden and below the surface lies the unconscious mind. The preconscious, stores temporary memories.
- he was talking about unconcsious drives and motives we are unaware of
Freud exploring the unconscious
Believed the unconscious was a reservoir of mostly unaccetable thoughts wishes feelings and memories. he belived our most basic drivers were sexual or aggressive but because society didn't accept it we had to conseal it
Discuss Freud’s view of the mind as an iceberg, and explain how he used this image to represent conscious and
unconscious regions of the mind.
- The mind is like an
- iceberg. Mostly hidden and below the surface lies the unconscious mind. The
- preconscious, stores temporary memories.
- insert pic
Freud developed techniques that he thought would tap into repressed desires and unconscious
- association—Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their mind to tap the
- interpretation—analyzing the manifest content of dreams to make inferences about latent meanings.
Describe Freud’s view of personality structure, and discuss the interactions of the id, ego and the superego.
- Personality develops
- as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses
- (id) and social restraints (superego).
- inset picture
the Id is...
- unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives operating on the pleasure
- principle, demanding immediate gratification.
Largely conscious, ____ functions as the “executive” and mediates the demands of id and superego.
ego, thinkin of a manager and inbetween Id and superego
provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. too good
Jack's mother baked a tray of good smelling cookies she put them on a tray on the counter to cool and told him not to touch them while they cooled because there for his sister's party. jack loves his sister but could not help himself and took em and ran. what personality compoment would Freud say is dominating this scene?
imagine instead that as jack looked at the cookies mouth watering he tought about his sister and mom's warning and didn't take cookieswhat personality compoment would Freud say is operating to balance Jack's compeating desires and concerns?
Ego, it is teh ego and not supereago is because were talking about the compoment that balances the idea, not internlization of it
Identify Freud’s psychosexual stages of development, and describe the effects of fixation on behavior
- personality formed during life's first few years divided into psychosexual stages. during these stages the Id's pleasure seeking energies focus on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous ones
- also believed that conflics unresolved during one of tehse stages could lead a person to fixate pleasure seeking energies during that stage
- Freud’s theory about boys’ sexual
- desires toward their mothers and feelings of
- jealousy and hatred for the rival fathers
- supposed to be druing the phalics stage
- Freud’s theory about girls’ desire
- for the fathers and jealousy toward their mothers.
Children cope with threatening feelings by repressing
them and by _____ with the
rival parent. Through this process of identification their superego gains
strength incorporating parents’ values.
Describe the function of defense mechanisms, and identify six of them.
Ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
- Reaction Formation
banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
- leads an individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual
- the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites.
- People may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from
- unconscious sexual feelings.
leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
- offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening,
- unconscious reasons for one’s actions.
shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or persons… redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.
Freud's Ideas Accepted by Neo-Freudians (new Freudians)
Importance of the unconscious
Id, ego, and superego
Shaping of personality in childhood
Neo-Freduians departed from Freud in two ways:
Placed more emphasis on the conscious mind
Placed less emphasis on sex and aggression, focusing on more social goals
- believed a child struggles with the inferiority complex and strives for
superiority and power.
Carl Jung believed in the ___ ____ which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. He believed this is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother as a symbol of nurturance.
The idea of a projective tests is
reveal the hidden unconscious mind perspective
Describe two projective tests used to assess personality, and discuss some criticisms of them.
- Thematic Apperception Test
- A series of drawings and your asked to tell a story about the drawings
- Rorschach Inkblot Test
- thers only one "standardiese" inkblot test some are in black n white and some add color and your jsut ask to tell therapist what you see
- Critics argue that projective test lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (predicting what it is supposed to).
- Even trained raters evaluating the same patient come up with different interpretations
- And projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity).
True or False
Modernresearch shows the existence of non-conscious information processing.
True or False
Freud’s theory has been criticized on scientific
merits. Most of its concepts arise out
of clinical practice which give rise to untestable,
- repression has little support (“partly refuted, partly untested, and partly untestable”;
- Loftus, 1995)
isabelle is fou years old. not in schoolyet and spend day with her stay at home mom. during the day she sometiems has tantroms whens eh doesnt get her way but when her father comes home from work she's almost always well behave for him and think she's her dad's little princess. how would freud explain isabell's behavior?
The humanistic perspective offered a perspective that emphasized____ ____
Summarize Abraham Maslow’s concept of self-actualization, and explain how his ideas illustrate the humanistic perspective.
Self-actualized people are:
- self-aware and self-accepting,
- open and spontaneous,
- loving and caring,
- someoen who is self actualization is someoen who reaches their full potiental and contributes to teh world around them
Carl Rogers believed that ____ ____ ____, an attitude of acceptance despite our failings,nurtures our growth and helps us develop a positive self-concept.
Unconditional Positive Regard
Contemporary Personality Research three areas
- Self-esteem and
- self-serving biases
The Trait Perspective
- An individual’s unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving
- (traits) constitutes his personality.
Hans and Sybil Eysenck
suggested that personality could be reduced down to two polar dimensions, ____ ____ and ____ ____n____
- emotional stability-instability.
Explain how psychologists use personality inventories to assess traits, and discuss the most widely used of these
- Personality inventories are questionnaires
- (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range
- of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once.
- Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
- an empirically derived measure
- true/false statements
- objectively scored
empirically derived means
a pool of things that are put on the text then they give it to others to standerdize it, then used statistics to see how the two groups are seperated
| Identify the Big Five personality factors, and discuss some of the strengths of this approach to studying personality.
- The most widely-accepted organization of personality traits among today’s trait
- researchers is that they can be reduced (through factor analysis) to
- a set of five factors.
say basically there are five differnt persoality differneces this is used by many researchers
a class valedictorying with a competitive type A personality might be espected to be ____ in neutorticism ____ in conscientioness and ____ in agreeableness
High, High, Low