SNC1DW Chapter 8
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Varying types of electromagnetic waves, from radio waves to gamma rays. All waves travel at the speed of light.
A telescope that uses a lens to collect the light from an object.
A telescope that uses a mirror to collect the light from an object.
An artificial object/vehicle that orbits a celestial body. Can also be a celestial body that orbits another of a larger size.
E.g. The Moon, The Hubble Space Telescope
Observatories that orbit other planets. Usually made to take high-resolution pictures not obtainable from Earth.
Solar nebula theory
The theory that describes how planets and stars formed from spinning, contracting disks of dust and gas.
A celestial body made of super-heated hydrogen and helium.
A giant cloud of gas and dust, which could be the birthplace of most, if not all, celestial bodies.
The hot, condensed object at the center of a nebula.
The process where hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei. This is also a process of energy production.
The Sun's surface layer.
Area of strong magnetic fields on the photosphere.
Streams of fast-moving charged particles released by the Sun into the solar system.
Fast-moving charged particles released from the Sun that collide with Earth's or another celestial body's atmosphere.
Importance of the Sun
- The Sun:
- -is needed for all life on Earth
- -drives most processes on Earth
- -powers the winds and ocean currents
- -provides photosynthesis
The measure of the total amount of energy a star radiates per second. Measured in Joules/second.
E.g. Astronomers have found stars from 10 000 times less luminous than the Sun, to over 30 000 times more luminous.
A star's magnitude as seen 32.6 light-years from Earth.
An instrument that produces a spectrum from a narrow beam of light, and projects it onto a photographic plate/digital detector.
Certain wavelengths in a spectrum identified by lines. Spectral lines identify chemical elements.
Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram
A graph that compares the properties of stars.
A band of stars on the H-R diagram that runs diagonally from the top-left to the bottom-right. 90 percent of stars are in the main sequence.
A small, dim, yet very hot star.
A giant explosion where the entire outer parts of a star get blown off.
A star so dense that only neutrons exist in it's core.
How low-mass stars evolve
Nebula -> small protostar -> red dwarf -> red main sequence star -> white dwarf. Low mass stars stay as main sequence stars for as long as 100 billion years. When they run out of hydrogen, they become white dwarfs.
How intermediate-mass stars evolve
Nebula -> medium protostar -> yellow main sequence star -> red giant -> white dwarf. Intermediate-mass stars burn their hydrogen faster than low-mass stars, so they only last about 10 billion years. When their hydrogen runs out, they become red giants and eventually white dwarfs.
How high-mass stars evolve
Nebula -> large protostar -> blue main sequence star -> red supergiant -> supernova -> neutron star or black hole. High-mass stars burn their hydrogen the fastest, so they die more quickly and violently. Heavier elements form by fusion, and the star expands into a supergiant. When the star explodes during a supernova, it becomes either a neutron star or a black hole.
The result of the deaths of stars over 25 solar masses. The remnants of the supernova is crushed by gravity and nothing can escape it, not even light.
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