SNC1DW Chapter 8

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  1. Electromagnetic Radiation
    Varying types of electromagnetic waves, from radio waves to gamma rays. All waves travel at the speed of light.

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  2. Refracting telescope
    A telescope that uses a lens to collect the light from an object.

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  3. Reflecting telescope
    A telescope that uses a mirror to collect the light from an object. 

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  4. Satellite
    An artificial object/vehicle that orbits a celestial body. Can also be a celestial body that orbits another of a larger size.

    E.g. The Moon, The Hubble Space Telescope
  5. Orbiters
    Observatories that orbit other planets. Usually made to take high-resolution pictures not obtainable from Earth.

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  6. Solar nebula theory
    The theory that describes how planets and stars formed from spinning, contracting disks of dust and gas.

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  7. Star
    A celestial body made of super-heated hydrogen and helium.

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  8. Nebula
    A giant cloud of gas and dust, which could be the birthplace of most, if not all, celestial bodies.

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  9. Protostar
    The hot, condensed object at the center of a nebula.

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  10. Nuclear fusion
    The process where hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei. This is also a process of energy production.

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  11. Photosphere
    The Sun's surface layer.

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  12. Sunspot
    Area of strong magnetic fields on the photosphere.

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  13. Solar wind
    Streams of fast-moving charged particles released by the Sun into the solar system.

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  14. Solar flare
    Fast-moving charged particles released from the Sun that collide with Earth's or another celestial body's atmosphere.

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  15. Importance of the Sun
    • The Sun:
    • -is needed for all life on Earth
    • -drives most processes on Earth
    • -powers the winds and ocean currents
    • -provides photosynthesis

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  16. Luminosity
    The measure of the total amount of energy a star radiates per second. Measured in Joules/second.

    E.g. Astronomers have found stars from 10 000 times less luminous than the Sun, to over 30 000 times more luminous.
  17. Absolute magnitude
    A star's magnitude as seen 32.6 light-years from Earth.

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  18. Spectroscope
    An instrument that produces a spectrum from a narrow beam of light, and projects it onto a photographic plate/digital detector.

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  19. Spectral lines
    Certain wavelengths in a spectrum identified by lines. Spectral lines identify chemical elements.

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  20. Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram
    A graph that compares the properties of stars.

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  21. Main sequence
    A band of stars on the H-R diagram that runs diagonally from the top-left to the bottom-right. 90 percent of stars are in the main sequence.

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  22. White dwarf
    A small, dim, yet very hot star.

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  23. Supernova
    A giant explosion where the entire outer parts of a star get blown off.

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  24. Neutron star
    A star so dense that only neutrons exist in it's core.

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  25. How low-mass stars evolve
    Nebula -> small protostar -> red dwarf -> red main sequence star -> white dwarf. Low mass stars stay as main sequence stars for as long as 100 billion years. When they run out of hydrogen, they become white dwarfs.

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  26. How intermediate-mass stars evolve
    Nebula -> medium protostar ->  yellow main sequence star -> red giant -> white dwarf. Intermediate-mass stars burn their hydrogen faster than low-mass stars, so they only last about 10 billion years. When their hydrogen runs out, they become red giants and eventually white dwarfs.

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  27. How high-mass stars evolve
    Nebula -> large protostar -> blue main sequence star -> red supergiant -> supernova -> neutron star or black hole. High-mass stars burn their hydrogen the fastest, so they die more quickly and violently. Heavier elements form by fusion, and the star expands into a supergiant. When the star explodes during a supernova, it becomes either a neutron star or a black hole.

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  28. Black hole
    The result of the deaths of stars over 25 solar masses. The remnants of the supernova is crushed by gravity and nothing can escape it, not even light.

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Card Set:
SNC1DW Chapter 8
2014-02-28 00:27:47
science space sun stars

Glossary terms and definitions for chapter 8.
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