CDO Exam 2 Study Guide

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CDO Exam 2 Study Guide
2014-03-03 13:50:27

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  1. Where are the hair cells located?
    Organ of Corti
  2. What parts of the ear are affected: conductive hearing loss
    outer or middle ear
  3. What parts of the ear are affected: sensorineural hearing loss
    inner ear
  4. What parts of the ear are affected: central auditory processing disorder
    brainstem, figers to auditory areas of the brain, auditory cortex
  5. What divisions of the ear are fluid-filled?
    • cochlea:
    • scalia vestibuli
    • scalia tympani
  6. What is the vestibular system responsible
    incoming sound signals create pressure wave in the perilymph
  7. Know what type of information is recorded on
    an audiogram versus a tympanogram.
    • The audiogram is a graph showing the results of the pure-tone hearing tests. It illustrates the type, degree, and configuration of hearing loss.
    • Tympanic membrane is the fancy name for eardrum, so when a doctor wants
    • to find out how your eardrum is working, he or she may get a
    • tympanogram. In this test, a doctor uses a special machine that is small
    • enough to be inserted into you ear. It makes a quiet noise that should get your eardrum moving. The result of this test is known as a tympanogram.
  8. What is cued speech?
    manual cues of the consonant or vowel sounds being spoken to assist person who is deaf to comprehend speech
  9. What type of hearing loss is caused by otitis
  10. Anatomy of outer ear
    • auricle/pinna
    • externam auditory meatus (ear canal)
  11. Anatomy of middle ear
    • tympanic membrane/ ear drum
    • ossicular chain/ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)
    • eustachian tube (auditory tube)
  12. Anatomy of the inner ear
    • oval window
    • cochlea (and Organ of Corti)
    • Acoustic Nerve/ Auditory Nerve
    • Cranial VIII
  13. What is otosclerosis?
    hardening of the middle ear bones of plaque buildup-- typical of stapes
  14. What is presbycusis?
    age-related hearing loss
  15. What is otitis media?
    middle ear infection
  16. Where is the Organ of Corti located?
    cochlea, more specifically scalia media
  17. Know the parts of a hearing aid versus parts
    of a cochlear implant.
    • hearing aid: battery, microphone, amplifier, receiver
    • cochlear implant: transmitter, microphone, receiver/stimulator
  18. Bony cochlea
    • snail shaped
    • completes 2 3/4 spiral turns
    • ends at the apex- helicotrema center @ end of spiral turns
  19. membranous cochlea
    • divides the cochlea into 3 chambers
    • scalia vestibuli: incoming sound signal causes pressure wave in the perilymph
    • scalia media: sound signal is sent to the brain (electrical)
    • scalia tympani: outgoing sound signal causes pressure wave in perilymph
  20. Be familiar with the different levels of
    hearing loss. (i.e. mild, moderate, moderately severe, severe, profound)
    • mild: 15-40 db
    • miderate: 41-55 db
    • moderately severe: 56-70 db
    • severe: 71-90 db
    • considered deaf at loss exceeding 75 db
  21. Know the difference between frequency and
    intensity and how they relate to sound.
    • Frequency: hz, cycles per second, how fast the molecules are moving, pitch
    • Intensity: amplitude, how far the molecules are displaced, decibels
  22. Be familiar with the path of sound as it
    travels from the outer ear to the brain.
    Acoustic energy gathered by the auricle (pinna) channeled into the external auditory meatus, strikes and vibrates the tympanic membrane, vibrates the 3 bones, across the oval window, travels into the scalia vestibuli. Hydraulic energy (perilymph) compresses Reissner's membrane, disturbs hair cells in Organ of Corti in scalia media. Electrical signal is sent on to the brain. Then sound that is not transmitted to the brain compresses basilar membrane, scalia tympani, middle ear
  23. Audiometry
    Hearing Level Threshold: at intensity level at which a tone is faintly heard at least 50% of the time presented
  24. Speech audiometry
    Conducted to find out how well a person understands speech & discriminates between speech sounds. SRT= the lowest level at which the person cannot understand 50% of the words presented
  25. Acoustic immittance
    used to assist in the prescription of hearing disorders, tympanic membrane
  26. ABR
    • Auditory brain stem evoked response
    • electrical activity in C VIII, the brainstem, and cortical ares of the brain, can Dx
  27. Hearing screening
    • delineates the need for audiological evaluation
    • 20 of 25 db out 500, 1k, 2k, 3k, 4k
  28. Frontal lobe
    • motor cortex (primary motor area)
    • Broca's area (left side only)
    • planning & producing speech
    • behavior
    • impulses
    • language
  29. occipital lobe
    visual cortex- primary visual area
  30. parietal lobe
    • contains sensory areas (touch & pressure)
    • proprioception (position of body)
  31. temporal lobe
    • shaped like a thumb
    • auditory cortex or primary auditory area
    • receives & analyzes auditory stimuli
    • Wernicke's area: concerned w/ language comprehension
  32. brainstem
    • tail of the cortex
    • medulla oblongata (medulla)
    • controls breathing, heartrate, and other automatic functions of the body
  33. cerebellum
    regulates and coordinates movement of the body including speech
  34. aphasia
    • language disorder associated with acquired brain damage
    • affects all aspects of language
    • not a speech disorder
    • damage to left hemisphere, Broca's area and/or Wernicke's Area
  35. anomia
    trouble naming, finding words
  36. apraxia
    • absence of movement:
    • speech/verbal
    • oral
    • limb
    • cause often unknown
    • lesion in central motor programming area: Broca's area, left frontal lobe
  37. dysarthia
    a group of disorders due to paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of the speech muscles
  38. alexia
    difficulty with reading
  39. acalculia
    difficulty with numbers
  40. agraphia
    difficulty writing
  41. right hemisphere
    visual and spacial difficulty (facial and geographic orientation) emotional expression, attention, difficulty understanding abstract meanings of words, and excessive and impulsive talking
  42. Know the difference between the different
    types of paraphasias: phonemic, verbal/semantic and neologism
    • phonemic: sounds similar to intended word. I drove my tar today
    • verbal/semantic: words have similar meaning or are from same semantic class. My son is 16 (daughter)
    • neologism: self created word
  43. What is the prevalence of aphasia? How many
    individuals have a stroke per year?
    • approx: 1 million people have aphasia
    • 700,000 STROKES per year
    • 80,000 result in APHASIA
  44. Know the 3 different types of CVAs that can
    lead to a stroke (embolism, thrombosis, aneurysm)
    • embolism: blockage, blood clot
    • thrombosis: blood clot fills artery
    • aneurysm: sack-lik buldge on wall of a weakened artery that ruptured
  45. What is fluent aphasia and how is it
    different than non-fluent aphasia?
  46. Know the difference between Wernicke’s and Broca’s aphasia.
  47. What is anomic aphasia?
  48. What disorders are considered motor speech
  49. Know the difference between speech/verbal,
    oral and limb apraxia.
  50. Know what dysarthria is and what can cause