Exercise 8 - Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structures of Bones and Cartilages

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Exercise 8 - Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structures of Bones and Cartilages
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2014-03-06 23:37:09
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Biology 103A
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  1. skeleton
    is constructed of two of the most supportive tissues found in the human body - cartilage and bone
  2. axial skeleton
    bones that lie around the body's center of gravity
  3. appendicular skeleton
    bones of the limbs, or appendages
  4. articular cartilages
    hyaline cartilage covers the bone ends at movable joints and the epiphyseal surface in place of the periosteum
  5. costal cartilages
    strips of cartilage associated with the rib bones, found connecting the ribs to the sternum (breastbone) and are made from hyaline cartilage and provide flexibility to the chest cavity, as well as protection to the organs in the upper torso
  6. laryngeal cartilages
    largely construct the larynx (voice box)
  7. tracheal and bronchial cartilages
    reinforce other passageways of the respiratory system
  8. nasal cartilages
    support the external nose
  9. cartilage tissue
    typically consists primarly of water and is fairly resilient, are also distinguished by the fact that they contain no nerves and very few blood vessels
  10. perichondrium
    fibrous, connective tissue membrane covering the external surface of cartilaginous structures, acts to resist distortion of the cartilage when it is subjected to pressure, and plays a role in cartilage growth and repair
  11. intervertebral discs
    cushion the vertebrae and absorbs shock
  12. hyaline cartilage
    • provides sturdy support with some resilience or "give"
    • LOCATION: nose, trachea, larynx,¬†and in the connection between the ribs and the breastbone and also the ends of bone where they form joints
  13. Elastic cartilage
    • is much more flexible than hyaline cartilage and tolerates repeated bending better
    • LOCATION: external ear and epiglottis
  14. fibrocartilage
    • consists of row of chondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers, has great tensile strength, can withstand heavy compression, and is used to construct the intervertebral discs and the cartilages within the knee joint
    • LOCATION: pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs, and meniscus of the knee
  15. compact bone
    looks smooth and homogenous
  16. spongy bone
    is composed of small trabeculae (bars) of bone and lots of open space
  17. long bones
    are much longer than they are wide, generally consisting of a shaft with heads at either end and composed predominantly of compact bone, ex: femur and phalanges
  18. short bones
    are typically cube-shaped, and contain more spongy bone than compact bone, ex: tarsals and carpals
  19. flat bones
    are generally thin, with two waferlike layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them, ex: bones of the skull
  20. irregular bones
    have complicated shapes that fit none of the preceding classes, ex: vertebrae and hip bones
  21. sesamoid bones
    are special types of short bones formed in tendons, ex: patella (kneecaps)
  22. wormian or sutural bones
    tiny bones between cranial bones
  23. bone markings
    reveal where bones form joints with other bones, where muscles, tendons, and ligaments were attached, and where blood vessels and nerves passed
  24. diaphysis
    elongated shaft of a long bone
  25. periosteum
    double-layered connective tissue that covers and nourishes the bone
  26. perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
    many fibers of the periosteum which penetrate into the bone
  27. epiphysis
    the end of a long bone, attached to the shaft
  28. epiphyseal plate
    plate of hyaline cartilage at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphysis that provides for growth in length of a long bone
  29. epiphyseal lines
    are replaced with bone and appear as thin, barely discernible remnants
  30. yellow marrow
    a storage region for adipose tissue
  31. red marrow
    is found in the marrow cavities to form blood cells
  32. endosteum
    connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surfaces
  33. central canal (Haversian)
    the canal in the center of each osteon that contains minute blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the needs of the osteocytes
  34. osteocytes
    mature bone cells
  35. lacuna
    a small space, cavity, or depression; lacunae in bone or cartilage are occupied by cells
  36. concentric lamellae
    one of the tubular layers of bone surrounding the central canal in an osteon
  37. osteon
    system of interconnecting canals in the microscopic structure of adult compact; unit of bone; also called Haversian system
  38. canaliculi
    tiny canals radiating outward from a central canal to the lacunae of the first lamella and then form lamella to lamella
  39. function of the lacuna
    a small cavity within the bone matrix, containing an osteocyte
  40. perforating (Volkmann's) canals
    run into the compact bone and marrow cavity from the periosteium, at right angles to the shaft
  41. endochondral ossification
    embryonic formation of bone by the replacement of calcified cartilage; most skeletal bones are formed by this process (hyaline cartilage)
  42. lamella of osteon
    extracellular matrix layer between osteocytes runs in compact bone

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