Bio animals

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Anonymous
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264375
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Bio animals
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2014-02-28 10:38:48
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bio animals
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  1. porifera
    • basal group/ lack true tissues
    • have epidermal cells, pore cells, mesohply (middle matter)
    • current of H2O through pore cells into the spongeocoel and out the osculum
    • their cells are totipotent
    • sequential hermaphrodites
  2. Cnidarians
    • hydras, jellies, sea anemones, corals
    • sessile or motile
    • diploblastic 
    • have 2 openings, mouth and anus
    • predators; they use their tentacles to catch food
    • on their tentacles they have cnidocytes which contain cnidia 
    • nematocyts are specialized cnidia that sting prey
  3. lophotrochozoan
    • platythelminthes 
    • rotifera
    • ectoprocta
    • brachiopoda
    • annelida
    • mollusca
  4. playthelminthes
    • acoelomates
    • dorsal-ventrally flattened
    • parasitic and some free living
  5. rotifera
    • pseduocoelomates
    • very small
    • complete digestive tract (mouth and anus)
    • have crown of cilia on head to help draw water into mouth
    • have trophi or jaws hat grind up food
  6. ectoprocta
    • u-shaped alimentary canal
    • sessile and true coelmate
    • look like plants
  7. brachiopoda
    • coelomates
    • marine and sessile
    • look like clams but are dorsal-ventrally shaped
  8. mollusca
    • soft-bodied, but have hard shell of calcium carbonate
    • some have internal shells like squids and octopi
    • have muscular foot, mantle and visceral mass 
    • 3 major clades: gastropods(snails) bivalves(clams) and cephalopods(octopi)
  9. muscular foot
    for movement in mollusca, can be modified into tentacles
  10. mantle
    fold of tissue over viscera mass; secretes shell
  11. annelida
    • segmented body wall and organs
    • earthworms
    • no GI tract
  12. Ecdyzoans
    • most species diverse group
    • nematode
    • arthropoda
    • usuallly have external coat
  13. nematode
    • roundworms
    • have external coat, cuticle
    • cylindrical bodies tapered at the ends
    • alimentary canal 
    • no circulatory system
    • pseduoceolomates 
    • longitudinal muscles only
    • parasitic and freeliving
  14. arthropoda
    • coelomates, but with reduced coelom 
    • developed sensory organs (eyes, smell)
    • segmented bodies, jointed appendages, exoskeleton of protein and chitin
  15. deuterstomia
    • chordata
    • echinodermata
  16. echinodermata
    • spiny skin
    • ceolomates
    • bilateral symmetry body plan while adults are radial
    • endoskeleton of hard calcareous plates
    • unique water vascular system
  17. chordata
    • bilateral symmetry 
    • coelomate
    • notochord
    • dorsal hallow nerve chord
    • pharngeal gill slits/clefts
    • muscualr post-anal tail
  18. notochord
    • present in all chordate embryos, some adults
    • provide skeletal support
    • percursor to backbone
  19. dorsal hallow nerve chord (chordates)
    • from ectoderm, rols into tube dorsal or notochord
    • develops into brain and spinal chord
    • unique to chordates
  20. Pharyngeal gill sits/clefts (chordata)
    • region of digestive tube immediately posterior to mouth
    • looks like arches in all chordate embryos
    • filter out the water so it doesnt pass through he gut
  21. class chrondicthyes
    • cartilage fish, shark rays
    • some filter feeders most predators
    • fertilization is internal with male and claspers 
    • some oviparous and others oviviparous
  22. gnathostoma
    • jaw mouth fishes 
    • enlarged forebrain (vision, smell)
    • 4 sets of HOX genes
  23. osteichthyes
    • fish
    • have bony scales 
    • many are oviparous 
    • actinopterygii and sarcopterygii are the 2 lineages
  24. actinopterygii (lineage of fish)
    • bony rays that support fins 
    • ray fin fishes
  25. sarcopterygii (lineage of fish)
    • lobe fin fishes
    • rod bones that were though to have helped them walk across surfaces
    • lungfishes, (have gills and lungs)
  26. tetrapods
    • are gnasthostomes 
    • have neck
    • pelvic girdle fused to backbone
    • modification of lungfishes lead todigits that helped them walk on land
    • most are amphibians
    • 3 clades: anura, apoda, urodela
  27. urodela (amphibians)
    salamanders
  28. anura (amphibians)
    frogs
  29. apoda (amphibians)
    cecelians
  30. amniotes
    • tetrapods that developed amniotic egg
    • have specialized membranes 
    • eggs have shells to reduce dehydration; help them move away from water
    • rib cage or ventilating lungs
    • 2 lineages: reptiles, and synapsids
  31. amnion
    layer that form fluid filled sac around embryo
  32. reptiles
    • scales to protect from dessication
    • lay eggs on land
    • internal fetilization
    • ectothermic
    • lizards, birds, snakes
  33. synapsids
    lineage that lead to mammals
  34. mammals
    • have mammary glands that produce milk
    • give birth to live young
    • have hair of keratin, with fat layer under skin to retain heat
    • endothermic
    • large brains, and diaphragms
    • different size teeth
    • 3 major lineages: monotremes, marsupials, eutherians
  35. monotremes (mammals)
    • lack nipples but secrete milk via glands on belly
    • platypus and echidna
    • egg laying mammals 
    • in Australia and new guinea
  36. marsupials (mammals)
    • have pouch (have placenta)
    • embryo develops in uterus but finished development in pouch 
    • birth to live young 
    • have nipples 
    • australia, N and S america 
    • opossum, kangaroo, koala
  37. eutherians (mammals)
    • placental animals (more complex than marsupials)
    • complete development in unterus
    • longer pregnancy than marsupials

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