E, E & B

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E, E & B
2014-02-28 13:56:24

1st exam, second set
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  1. Change in species over time
  2. Changes within species to better adapt to environment(microevolution)
  3. Splitting of species into new species (macroevolution)
  4. All living organisms.....
    • related by common descent
    • have common ancestors
    • descended from ancestors by modifications
  5. Who developed palenontology and comparative anatomy?
    Georges Cuvier
  6. Two main ideas:
    1. All life on earth is related by common descent
    2. Natural selection is the main cause of adaptive evolution
    The origin of Species
  7. Observable properties of an individual
  8. Genetic make-up of an individual
  9. Natural selection is an inevitable process of nature whenever organisms show _____ _______ in their capacity to ______ & _______ in particular environments
    • Heritable variation
    • survive & reproduce
  10. acts on variability to produce genetic and phenotypic change in population
    natural selection
  11. Natural selection acts on the variability through the environment
    agent of selection
  12. ultimate source of genetic variability in population
  13. produces new combinations of genes via sexual reproduction
  14. new genotypes into population
    • immigration
    • gene flow
  15. 1. Populations evolve, not individuals
    2. natural selection only works on heritable traits
    3. A trait favorable in one environment may be neutral or unfavorable in a different environment
    3 important points about evolution by natural selection
  16. natural selection operates via differential reproductive success
    1. mortality (survivorship)
    2. reproductive ability (fecundity)
  17. * Atomic Theory
    * Theory of Plate Tectonics
    * Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
    Unifying Theories
  18. 1. Fossil record
    2. Anatomy
    3. Embryology
    4. Molecular structure
    5. Biogeography
    Observations that are explained by the theory of evolution
  19. linkage between groups
    transitional forms
  20. * traits with basic underlying similarity resulting from common ancestry
    * same basic structure and origin
    * may or may not have common function
    * indicates evolutionary relationship
  21. * remnants of structures that were functional in ancestral forms, but are no longer functional
    Vestigial structures
  22. localized group of individuals of the same species that interbreed
  23. 1. natural selection
    2. genetic drift
    3. gene flow
    4. mutation
    mechanisms of genetic change in a population
  24. chance events that alter allele frequencies
    genetic drift
  25. movement of alleles between populations via immigration
    gene flow
  26. creation of new alleles
  27. improves the match between organisms and their environment
    natural selection that results in adaptation
  28. study of genetic variability in a population and the forces that act on it
    population genetics
  29. region of DNA that codes for a protein product
  30. any of the alternative versions of a gene
  31. location of a gene on the chromosome
  32. total aggregate of alleles for all loci in all individuals in a population
    gene pool
  33. 1. Discrete characters
    2. Quantitative characters
    Variation within a population
  34. * distinct or discontinuous
    *often determined by a single gene with different alleles
    *e.g. flowers that are purple or white
    Discrete characters
  35. * vary along a continuum within a population
    * usually result of influence of many genes
    * height in humans
    Quantitative characters
  36. Genotype + Environment =
  37. 1. genetic variation
    2. phenotypic plasticity-response to environment
    phenotypic variation in population
  38. Natural Selection requires ______ _______ in population
    genetic variability
  39. * ultimate source of genetic variation
    * change in nucleotide sequence of organism's DNA
  40. only _______ in gametes can be passed to offspring
  41. * change of single nucleotide base in gene
    * may change structure of protein produced
    * most are neutral or harmful; occasionally enhance fitness
    point mutations
  42. * affects portion of DNA that does not code for protein
    * amino acid composition of protein not changed
    * change in amino acid composition does not affect shape and function of protein
    point mutation harmless if
  43. amino acid composition of protein not changed due to redundancy in genetic code
    silent mutation
  44. 1. Base-pair substitutions
    2. Insertions and deletions
    2 categories of point mutations
  45. * replacement of one nucleotide with another
    -silent mutation
    -missense mutation
    -nonsense mutation
    Base-pair substitutions of point mutations
  46. mutation that changes amino acid, may be for better or worse
  47. mutation that changes codon into "stop" codon, resulting in nonfunctional protein
    Nonsense mutation
  48. * additions of losses of nucleotides in gene
    * results in frameshift mutation
    * all nucleotides "downstream" will be improperly grouped
    * protein almost always nonfunctional
    Insertions and deletions of point mutation
  49. * delete, disrupt, or rearrange many loci at once
    * usually harmful, sometimes neutral, rarely beneficial
    * e.g. dogs ability to smell due to duplicate gene on chromosome
    chromosomal rearrangement
  50. * homologous chromosomes distributed at random into gametes during meiosis
    recombination via sexual reproduction
  51. having two identical alleles for a given gene
  52. having two different alleles for a given gene
  53. if only one allele exists for particular locus, all individuals will be homozygous for that allele
    fixed allele
  54. A population where allele and genotype frequencies do not change over time, no evolution
    hardy-Weinberg equalilibrium
  55. * tests for occurrence of evolution in a population
    * frequencies of alleles and genotypes will remain constant from generation to generation
    Hardy-Weinberg principle
  56. 1. No mutations
    2. Random mating
    3. No natural selection
    4. Large population size
    5. No gene flow
    Assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg equalilibrium
  57. Departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium indicates _________ _______ in population
    evolutionary change
  58. Evolution involves _______ _______ in a population=change in ________ ________ in a population over time
    • genetic change
    • allele frequencies
  59. reshuffles alleles, but does not alter allele frequency
    sexual recombination
  60. will alter genotype frequencies, but not allele
    nonrandom mating
  61. These do not produce evolutionary change
    • sexual recombination
    • nonrandom mating
  62. * change in allele frequencies through change alone
    * random, non-directed change
    * may result in loss of genetic variation through loss of fixation of alleles
    * harmful alleles may become fixed
    * only in small populations
    Genetic Drift
  63. Founder effect and bottleneck effect
    genetic drift
  64. * this occurs when a few individuals establish a new population
    * allele frequencies are likely to be different from original population due to chance
    * loss of genetic variation
    Founder Effect
  65. Diversity in ________ is higher then an other parts of the world
  66. * sudden change in environment drastically reduces population size
    * gene pool no longer reflects that of original population
    Bottleneck Effect
  67. * movement of alleles between populations via immigration
    * input of new alleles into population
    * tends to reduce differences between populations over time
    * may slow down adaptive evolution in a particular environment
    Gene Flow
  68. only important if:
    a. immigration rate is high
    b. populations are genetically very different
    gene flow
  69. natural selection is based on differential success in _______ and __________
    survival and reproduction
  70. natural selection is the only mechanism that results in __________ _________ : improves match between organisms and their environment
    adaptive evolution
  71. Process involves:
    1. chance-creation of new genetic variation
    2. sorting-selection favors certain phenotypes-NOT RANDOM
    adaptive evolution
  72. Contribution an individual makes to gene pool of future generations
  73. contribution an individual makes to gene pool of future generations, relative to the contributions of other individuals
    relative fitness
  74. natural selection acts directly on theĀ  _________ of the individual
  75. natural selection acts indirectly on the________ of the individual
  76. 1. Directional selection
    2. disruptive selection
    3. stabilizing selection
    ways natural selection can operate on traits
  77. * favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range
    * acts in a changing environment
    *population mean shifts to new phenotype, which is better adapted to altered environment
    directional selection
  78. * actis if two or more phnotypes of high fitness separated by intermediate phenotype of low fitness
    * favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range
    * selects for polymorphisms
    disruptive selection
  79. * favors intermediate variant & acts against extreme phenotypes
    * acts in stable environment, selection for optimal phneotype
    * reduces variation around optimal phenotype
    stabilizing selection