Chapter 17

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Author:
Steven23
ID:
264408
Filename:
Chapter 17
Updated:
2014-02-28 19:00:42
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EMT
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Description:
Cardiovascular Emergencies
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  1. Circulatory System AKA Cardiovascular System
    Three major components: The heart, blood vessels, blood
  2. Cardiac Conduction System
    Generates electrical  impulses that are conducted rapidly to other cells of the heart
  3. Automaticity
    Conductive cells are grouped in three areas of the heart--pacemaker sites--where the electrical impulses are created automatically, independent of the autonomic nervous system
  4. Heart
    • Atria (two top chambers)
    • Ventricles (two bottom chambers)
  5. Venae Cavae
    Largest vein in the body

    Delivers deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
  6. Pulmonary Arteries
    Delivers deoxygenated blood to the lungs
  7. Pulmonary Veins
    Delivers oxygenated blood from lungs back to heart
  8. Aorta
    Distributes blood to body
  9. Coronary Arteries
    The first two arteries to originate off the aorta and are the same arteries that are associated with many cardiac emergencies
  10. Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
    A graphical representation of the heart's electrical activity as detected from the chest wall surface

    • P Wave: The first waveform of the ECG and represents the depolarization (contraction) of the atria
    • QRS Complex: This is the second waveform and represents the depolarization of the ventricles and the main contraction of the heart
    • T Wave: The third waveform and represents the repolarization (relaxation) of the ventricles
  11. Cardiac Compromise
    Reduced heart function caused by any of a variety of conditions, diseases, or injuries affecting the heart
  12. Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)
    • Results from a variety of conditions that can affect the heart in which the coronary arteries are narrowed or occluded by fat deposits (plaque), clots, or spasm
    • Ex. Unstable Angina and Myocardial Infarction
  13. Angina Pectoris
    • Classic angina typically occurs upon an increased workload placed on the heart
    • Unstable angina usually indicates angina discomfort that is prolonged and worsening, or that occurs without exertion
  14. Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)
    Occurs when a portion of the heart muscle dies because of the lack of an adequate supply of oxygenated blood
  15. Distinguishing Angina Pectoris from Myocardial Infarction
  16. Aortic Aneurysm
    Occurs when a weakened section of the aortic wall, usually resulting from atherosclerosis, begins to dilate or balloon outward from the pressure exerted by the blood flowing through the vessel
  17. Heart Failure
    Categorized as left ventricular failure or right ventricular failure
  18. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
    The condition in which there is a buildup of fluid (congestion) in the body resulting from the pump failure of the heart
  19. Hypertensive Emergencies
    A severe, accelerated hypertension episode with a systolic pressure greater than 170 mmHg and/or diastolic pressure greater than 94 mmHg
  20. Cardiac Arrest
    The worst manifestation of cardiac compromise from an acute coronary event. It occurs when the heart is not pumping effectively or at all, and no pulses can be felt
  21. Nitroglycerin
    A potent vasodilator. Relaxes the muscles of the blood vessel walls

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