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What is LifeSpan?
- •It looks at how we change and how we stay
- the same
What is COHORT?
A cohort is a group of people born at around the same time in the same place
What is NATURE?
It is traits, abilities and capacities the we get from our parents genetically. (a process also know as maturation.
What is NUrtUre?
- the environmental influences that shape behavior.
- These influences can be biological, social, or societal
What is continuous change?
a kind of variation over time that is expected and understood.
For example gradual growth of a child into an adult is continuous change.
What is DISCONTINUOUS CHANGE?
is not understood because there is no precedent (an earlier event) for this kind of change.
- Ex. the growth from childhood to adulthood is a form of continuous change,
- * Discontinuous change would be if the child were to lose both parents and become an orphan.
What is a SENSITIVE period?
during development there are specific times where development i at its best or most sensitive.
Ex. Learning a language. We can still learn, but it is less efficient
What is Critical period?
this is a period during developement that is during a set time frame and is very short for growing.
Example - Eye sight between birth and 3yrs old. if it is obstructed could affect the childs sight for life
what is PSYCHO-DYNAMIC?
It is behaviour motivated by inner forces, memories and conflicts of which a person has little control.
What is behavioural perspective?
is when the developement is or are observable and there is environmental stimuli.
Ex. - If a young child is bit by a dog. and every since then she breaks out into sweats whenever the child sees a dog. This would be a behaviour perspective
What is the cognitive perspective?
is a process in learning and how the brain works
What is the humanistic perspective?
This is where there is emphasizes on free will and individuals control of behavior
What is the CONTEXTUAL perspective?
is the view of development that sees "the individual, not as a separate entity interacting with the environment, but as an inseparable part of it
What is evolutionary perspective?
Behavior that has been adaptive for promoting the survival of our species.
What 3 personalities are involved in psycho-dynamic perspective?
The Id is what?
has no morals, totally unconscious and consists of instincts only
The Ego involves what?
Uses reasoning to make a decisions and deals with the demands of reality.
The SUPER EGO involves?
takes into account whether something is right or wrong. This is our conscince
What are the FIVE stages of psychosocial development
- 1. Oral stage (birth to 18 months)
- 2. Anal stage (18 months to 3yrs.)
- 3. Phallic stage (3 to 6years)
- 4. Latent stage (6yrs to puberty)
- 5. Genital stage (puberty onward)
what is Fixation principle?
When individual remains locked in an earlier stage of development b/c needs are under or over gratified.
- Seeks to fulfill all wants, needs
- and impulses
The Super Ego?
tries to get the ego to act in an idealistic and moral manner.
What are the stages of Psychosocial development?
- •Trust vs. Mistrust (infant- 1yr)
- •Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1–3yrs)
- •Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5yrs)
- •Industry vs. Inferiority (middle childhood)
- •Identity vs. Identity Confusion (adolescence)
- •Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood)
- •Generativityvs. Stagnation (middle adulthood)
- •Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood)
What is Assimilation?
adding new information into existing knowledge?
adapting ones existing knowledge to new information
Sensorimotor stage is when?
infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical motor actions (0 to 2yrs)
Preoperational stage (2 to 7)
- •Children begin to represent the world
- with words, images, and drawings.
Concrete stage (7 - 11years)
children can perform mental operations and logical reasoning starts to be used
Formal operation stage (11 years and up)
- * not all ppl reach this stage
- * individual thinks in a more abstract more logical term
- * problem solving is more systematic
all ppl have a need for positive regard resulting from underlying wish to be loved and respected.
- As children play and cooperate with
- others, they learn what is important in their society
Proximal development is?
- What a learner can do without help and
- what he or she can do with help
What is a GENOTYPE?
The actual genetic material
what is a PHENOTYPE?
- the way the individuals genotype is expressed.
- Ex. height, weight, eye colour
name 3 diseases where there are DNA test available
- 1. Alzheimer
- 2. Systic fibrous
- 3. Huntington Disease
Mono zygotic is
comes from a single ovum and so identical
What is dizygotic?
comes from two ovums and they are NOT identical
Molecular genetics is?
is to discover the specific location on genes that determine an individuals susceptibility to diseases
what is Amniocentesis
- Sampling of amniotic fluid using a hollow needle inserted into the uterus.
- To screen for developmental abnormalities in a fetus.
What is Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS?)
test that detects chromosomal abnormalities like down syndrome
what is Embryoscopy?
- the examination of an embryo
- this may be used to obtain tissue specimens
What is Fetal blood sampling (FBS)?
is a blood sample taken from the head of the baby.
usually done to check for the presence of fetal acidosis
What is Neuroticism?
The degree of emotional stability that one displays
what is EXTROVERSION?
THE degree someone displays to be with others.
Environmental influence has three types in the way a child can be influenced:
- 1. Active
- 2. Passive
- 3. Evocative
Attending to activities that the child' personality is drawn to
when parents provide opportunities to develope certain characteristics
- is when the personality traits direct activities.
- For example when the child feels a calling to be a singer or actor or anything
What are the 3 stages of fetus development?
- 1. Germinal Stage > Fertilization (2 weeks)
- 2. Embryonic Stage > Organism secures to uterus (2 to 8 weeks)
- 3. Fetal stage major organ are formed (8 weeks to birth)
What happens in the 4th week?
- arms and leg buds appear
- chambers of the heart take shape
- blood vessels surface
- The process of organ formation that takes place during the first 2 months of
- prenatal development
- Any agent that causes a birth
What is ANOZIA?
- The condition in which the fetus/newborn has
- an insufficient supply of oxygen.
- Can cause brain damage
What is a PRETERM INFANT?
An infant is one who is born prior to 38 weeks after conception
Low-Birth weight infant is?
is born after 38–42 weeks but weighs less than 5 ½ lbs.
Premature infants =
With a low birth weight are considered high risk
What is habituation?
A form of learning in which the human decreases or tops responding to
what is the neonate period? and what happens in it?
- It is the first 28 days of life.
- baby automatically can breath, swallow cough sneezing blinking etc.
what is Cephalocaudal?
growth that proceeds from the head downwards
what is Proximodistal?
Running from the center of the body out towards the distal ends of appendages
What is hierarchical integration?
Simple skills develop separately and independently, but these skills are later integrated into more complex ones.
- Ex. - The child learns to control each finger separately, but then integrates these
- separate skills into the complex skill of grasping something.
What is the principle of independence?
different body systems grow at different rates.
are the basic cells of the nervous system
the elimination of synapses (the junction between two nerve cells) as the result of non-use or lack of stimulation.
is not completed till 4-5 years of age
- The process of the encasing axons with fat cells.
- Myelination both insulates the nerve cells and helps nerve impulses to travel faster.
- A myelin sheath (a layer of fat cells) encases most axons
- •Marasmus is a wasting away of body tissue
- in the infant’s first year, caused by severe protein-calorie deficiency.
- •Infants become grossly underweight and
- muscles atrophy.
- •Kwashiorkor is a condition caused by a
- deficiency in protein in which the child’s face, legs, and abdomen swell with
- •It causes the child’s vital organs to
- collect the nutrients that are present and deprive other parts of the body of them.
- •The child’s hair also becomes thin,
- brittle, and colourless.
The child’s behaviour also becomes listless
What is information processing?
- •Identifies the way that individuals take in, store, and use information
- •Involves quantitative changes in ability to organize and manipulate information
- •Increases sophistication, speed, and capacity in information processing characterizes cognitive growth
- •Focuses on types of “mental programs” used when seeking to solve problems
Trust versus mistrust =
Trust = sense of hope and success
Mistrust = sense of harsh and unfriendly world
Stage 2: Autonomy versus shame and doubt stage
- Autonomy = sense of independence
- Shame and doubt = sense of self doubt and un happiness
Refers to how a child behaves
What happens in a growing brain?
- •Two-year-olds have brains that are
- about three-quarters the size and weight of an adult brain.
- •By age 5, children’s brains weigh
- 90 percent of average adult brain weight.
- •In comparison, the average 5-year-old’s total body weight is just 30 percent of average adult body weight.
What is Interconnections?
allow for more complex communication between neurons, and they permit the rapid growth of cognitive skills
What is corpus callosum
- A bundle of nerve fibers that connect the two hemispheres of the brain.
- Becomes considerably thicker, developing as many as 800 million individual fibers that help coordinate brain functioning between the two hemispheres.
The process in which certain functions are located more in one hemisphere than the other.
in girls lateralization points
Language is more evenly divided between two hemispheres
in boys lateralization:
–Greater lateralization of language in left hemisphere
–Higher autism incidence (Baron-Cohen’s theory)
What is Centration?
The tendency to focus on only one aspect of the situation or problem
What is conservation?
The child understands that changing the form of a substance or object does not change its amount, overall volume, or mass.
What is Egocentrism?
- •Preschoolers do not understand that
- others have different perspectives from their own
- •Before the age of 3:
- –Speak only for their own entertainment
–Apparently unaware if anyone else can understand
Pre school children:
- •Often do not fully understand plots
- •Unable to recall significant story details
- •Make limited and often erroneous inferences about motivations
- • Difficulty separating fantasy from reality
- •Not able to critically understand and
- evaluate advertising messages
- The desire to act independently
- of parents and become autonomous
Gender constancy is
- •Belief that people are permanently male
- or female because of fixed, unchangeable biological factors
- •Gender schemas occur well before gender
- constancy is understood
- Simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-year-olds that may involve objects
- or repetitive muscular movements
Activities in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something
Children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other
•Children simply watch each other play
- •Children interact with one another in
- groups of two or more
- •Children share or borrow toys or
- materials, but do not do the same thing
- •Children play with one another, take
- turns, play games, and devise contests
Develop more effective strategies and sophisticated social skills, learn to better cope with negative emotions
–Learn to use language to express wishes
Become increasingly able to negotiate with other
- –Motivated by desire to obtain a concrete
–Higher in boys than girls
- –Intended to hurt another person’s
- feelings through non-physical means
–Higher in girls than boys
FREUD explanation for aggressive behaviour in children
- •death drive leads to aggressive
- actions and behaviour
LORENZ explanation for aggressive behaviour in children
•fighting instinct found in all humans
SOCIOBIOLOGISTS explanation for aggressive behaviour in children
•strengthening species drives aggression
SOCIAL-LEARNING FOR AGGRESSIVE behaviour in children
prior learning shapes aggression
COGNITIVE aggressive behaviour among children
interpretation of others’ actions and situations influences aggression
The brain grows faster than any other part of the body in a pre-schooler? True or false?
- By age 5 childrens brains are 90% the weight of an adult. Age 5 their brain is almost the same size as an adult. crazy.
What is Myelin?
it is protective insulation that surrounds parts of the neuron
Brian growth is related to?
is a bundle of nerve fibers that connect the two hemispheres of the brain.
What 4 functions are more predominant in the LEFT hemisphere of the brain?
- 1. SPEAKING
- 2. READING
- 3. THINKING
- 4. REASONING
What 4 functions are more predominant in the RIGHT hemisphere of the brain?
- 1. recognition of patterns
- 2. drawings
- 3. music
- 4. emotional expression
What is handeness?
The use of one hand over the other.
what is transformation?
the process in which one state is changed into another
what is conservation?
- knowing that quantity is not related to the arrangement and physical appearance of an object.
- Ex. pouring the same amt of liquid in a short lass doesn't make the amt of liquid less. but preschoolers do not know the different between the two amts of liquid.
What is intuitive thought?
when a pre schooler uses primitive reasoning and theie ongoing wold knowledge,
Example - preschoolers come to understand that pushing harder on the bike pedals make the bicycle go faster.
What is a SCRIPTS?
broad representations in memory of events and the order in which they occur.
IS MEMORY FROM A PARTICULAR EVENT FROM ONE'S OWN LIFE
consists of gradual improvements in the ways ppl perceive, understand, and remember information.
What is syntax?
the way an individual combines words and phrases to form a sentence
new words are associated w/their meaning only after a brief encounter
i wen a child talks to him or herself. when the speech is direct towards themselves.
the aspect of language that relates to communication effectively with others
is speech directed towards another person and meant to be understood by that person
During the Middle childhood stage are boys taller than girls?
No. in this stage girls are usually taller than boys
The CONCRETE operational stage:
Is between age 7 to 12
And is characterized by the active use of logic
Is the ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account
- *Increasing ability to handle information
- *Memory improvement
- *Short term memory capacity improvement
what kind of metalinguistic awareness happens by age 5 or 6?
- Understand language is governed by set of
what kind of metalinguistic awareness happens by age 7 or 8?
Realize that miscommunication be due to
- factors attributable not only to themselves, but to person communicating with
What is metalinguistic awareness?
understanding of ones own use of language
Fosters the view of American society as a melting pot.
Canadian society is made up of a diverse, coequal culture that should preserve their individual culture features
maintaining ones original culture while integrating oneself into the dominant culture
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
A test consisting of a series of items that very according to the age of the person being tested.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children,
Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
A test for children that provides separate measures of verbal and performance skills as well as a total score
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children,
Second Edition (KABC-II)
An intelligence test that measures childrens ability to integrate different stimuli at the same time and use step by step thinking
Programs that allow gifted tudents to move ahead at their own pace. even if that means they skip a grage.
students are kepted at a grade level but are enrolled in special programs and given individual activities to allow greater depth of study on a given topic
Industry = ?
Feelings of mastery & proficiency and a growing sense of competence
InFeriority = ?
Feeling of Failure and inadequacy
During middle childhood
- * Self-esteem increases
- * Children increasingly compare themselves
- to others
- *Children are developing their own standards
Preconventional Morality (stages
1 & 2)
people follow unvarying rules based on rewards and punishments
Conventional Morality (stages 3 & 4):
people approach problems in terms of their own position as good,responsible members of society
Postconventional Morality (stages 5 & 6):
- Morality (stages
- 5 & 6): universal moral principles are invoked and considered broader than
- a particular society
What are the 3 Kohlberg Morality levels?
- 1. Pre-conventional Morality
- 2. Conventional Morality
- 3. Post-conventional Morality
receive relatively little attention from peers in the form of either positive or negative interaction
are actively disliked and peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner
Boys and Friendship:
Larger networks of friends than girls
Strict dominance hierarchy
- Attempt to maintain and improve status in
Girls and frienship:
- •Focus on one or two “best friends” of
- relatively equal status
- •Conflicts solved by compromise, ignoring
- situation, or giving in
- •Can be confrontational with other girls
- who are not their friends
- •Language is less confrontational and
- direct than boys’