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2014-03-02 13:46:03

chapter 10
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  1. bioecological model of intelligence
    Ceci's theory that intelligence is a function of interactions among innate potential abilities, environmental contest and internal motivation. Innate ability is governed by resource pools. Example. Child good at math, parents put them in area to to do well in math(environment), must be motivated to take full advantage.

  2. emotional intelligence
    an individual's ability to perceive, express, and assimilate emotion, and to regulate emotion in the self and others. Though to be selfaware, sensitive to how they feel/how their feelings change and able to manange their emotions
  3. Multifactor emotional intelligence scale
    • -used to measure emotional intelligence
    • - 12 emotional abilities in 4 branches of abilities
    • - perceiving, facilitiing, understanding and managing emotion
  4. social intelligence
    the ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls - to act wisely in human relationships
  5. wisdom
    • the ability to make sound judgments about important, difficult or uncertain situations and to choose the best course of action
    • - associated with age
    • -concern for the community at large
  6. balance theory of wisdom
    • - robert sternberg
    • - thinks wisdom is primarily the product of practical intelligence
    • - the application of tactit knowledge - know how- to solve problems
  7. creativity
    • - the ability to produce ideas that are both original and valuable
    • - different cultures define differently
  8. how do western cultures look at creativity
    requiring verbal and math skills
  9. what personal qualities are important for creativity
    • - intrinsic motivation
    • - imagination
    • - game personality ( one that tolerates ambiguity, risk, and initial failure
    • - divergent thinking
  10. psychometric approach
    attemps to measure intelligence with carefully constructed psychological tests, called intelligence tests.
  11. comparative view
    • what IQ tests usual use
    • compare scores to others
  12. what must intelligence tests adhere to
    standardization, reliability, validity
  13. standardizations
    the use of uniform procedures in administering and scoring a test
  14. normal distribution
    a statistical patter in which most people achieve fairly similar scores at or near the middle of the distribution, with smaller groups of equal size at either ends.
  15. median
    the score exactly in the middle of a distribution
  16. mean
    the average score in a distribution
  17. mode
    the score that occurs the most frequently in a distribution
  18. reliability
    the degree to which a test produces the same scores over time
  19. test-retest reliability
    administer a test once and then a second time, see if scores math up
  20. split-half reliability
    divide test in two, administer, see if score the same
  21. validity
    are we testing what we are meant to be testing
  22. content validity
    the degree to which the content of a test accurately represents what the test is intended to measure
  23. validity coefficient
    • a corelation coefficient that measures validity by correlating a test score with some external criterion
    • - high iq test, would expect them to do well in school, see if they do
  24. predictive validity
    • the extent to which scores on a particular test successfully predct the things it is supposed to predict
    • aka, do well on an iq test predicting you do well in school
  25. Galton - Psychophysical performance
    • looked and evolution and intelligence
    • believed in a general intelligence factor proposed that two qualities distinguish more gifted from less gifted people
    • made of 2 things - psychic energy and a heighten sensitivity to external stimuli
    • people with more energy can do more work and develop greater intelligence
    • developed tests for sensory processing, motor skills and reaction time
  26. who developed correlation coefficients
    galton - which later helped challenge his theory
  27. Binet-Simon Intelligence test
    • developed to find children who were mentally retarded and put them in a special class
    • focused on language abilities
    • introduced mental age
    • correlated with scores on achievement test(test of knowledge about particular school subjects) and school success.
    • refused to sue test scores to rank children
  28. mental ageBinet's Theory on intelligence
    viewed intelligence as the ability to demonstrate memory, judgement, reasoning and social comprehension
  29. mental age
    the intellectual age at which a person is functioning, as opposed to chronological age
  30. Lewis Terman and the Stanford-binet intelligence test
    • changed binet-simon intelligence for the states
    • invented the intelligence quotient (IQ)
    • advocate for the eugenics movement
    • administered test to immigrants (decreased numbers from southern and eastern europe, increased rom northern and western)
  31. Intelligence Quotient
    • IQ
    • terman's measure of intelligence; the ratio of a child's mental age to his or her chronological age, multiplied by 100
  32. david wechsler and the WAIS
    • noticed two problems with standford-binet IQ test
    • 1.) distinction between mental and chronological age becomes less informative when testing adults
    • 2.) biase to native english speakers
    • scored IQ from a standard distribution
    • put more non-verbal tasks on
  33. cultural bias
    • iq test suffer from
    • western cultures - emphasize logic, math, verbal fluency
    • easter - getting along with others and fitting in with one's environment
  34. stereotype vulnerability or threat
    • a phenomenon in which people in a particular group perform poorly because they fear that their performance will conform to a negative stereotype associated with that group
    • eg. asian math tests.
  35. flynn effect
    an observed rise in average IQ scores throughout the world over time
  36. The Bell Curve COntroversy
    • shitty book stating that people with high IQ's are way better and should get more oppertunities
    • racist
  37. Phillipe Rushton
    • canadian prof at university of western ontario
    • claimed IQ went asian > white> black
    • refuted
    • was racist
  38. Family Studies - Twins - Intelligence
    • high correlation
    • but identical twins are raised and treated by their parents far more alike
    • seems that genetics play a big role, but so does environment
  39. heritablility
    • the overall extent to which differences among people are attributable to genes
    • approx 50% for iq
  40. heritability coefficient
    a correlation coefficient used to indicate the contribution of heredity to some characteristic, such a intelligence
  41. reaction range
    the upper and lower level of intelligence or other outcomes made possible by a child's genetic nature
  42. Occupational Influences and IQ
    • relationship between intelligence and job complexity
    • research also shows that more complex jobs my improve IQ
    • urban IQ scores higher than rural, maybe due to more complex lifestyle
  43. School Influences and IQ
    • both a cause and a consequence
    • higher IQ more likely to be promoted from grade to grade, less likely to drop out, more likely to attend college
    • students IQ's rise during school years and drop when schooling is discontinued(summer vacation)
    • quality of school environment is also a factor (poor schools = bad)
  44. Group differences in IQ scores
    • 1.) racial groups tend to differ
    • 2.) high scorers are more likely to attain high levels of education and income
  45. what two principles need to be kept in mind when looking at the group differences in IQ scores
    • Plants grown in different soil example
    • 1.) environment contribues to variation between groups
    • 2.) an average variation between groups cannot be applied to individuals within each group
  46. environmental enrichment
    providing disadvantaged children with more stimulating environments at home and at school
  47. mozart effect
    • the notion that listening to classical music will increase a person's intelligence
    • not based in fact
  48. enrichment-intervention programs of various kinds achieve greater success when they
    • 1.) begin earlier in life and continue
    • 2.) are more intensive (more often)
    • 3.) include programs for maintaining positive attitudes and behaviours
  49. electroencephalogram
    • used to analyze bioelectrical activity of the brain
    • records brain waves
  50. do brain size and total number of neurons effect IQ
  51. brain speed and intelligence
    • more intelligent people may be physiologically wired to acquire and use information more quickly
    • able to recognize a complete image faster tend to do better on IQ test
  52. nerve conduction velocity
    • correlations between IQ and NCV
    • it's the speed with which electrical impulses are transmitted along nerve fibres and across synapses
  53. positron emission tromography
    • a neuroimaging technology that can reveal where and how actively the brain is metabolizing, or breaking down glucose at any given moment.
    • shows brain activity
    • have shown lower activity in the brains of people who are doing well on a intellectual task and higher for people who are doing poorly
  54. cortical thickening and intelligence
    • thickens in chidlrens then thins again in adolescence
    • consistent with neural pruning
    • most heavy changes in the prefrontal cortex
    • found a longer cycle of thin - thickening - thinning in more intelligent people
  55. mental retardation
    term describing individuals who display general intellectual functioning that is well below average and, at the same time, poor adaptive behaviour
  56. what contributes to giftedness
    • 1.) environment
    • 2.) intrinsically motivated
    • 3.) some lack social and emotional intelligence
  57. intelligence
    the ability to learn, to meet the demands of the environment effectively and to understand and control one's mental activites
  58. spearman and the g factor
    • developed a tool for analyzing intelligence
    • factor analysis¬†
    • g factor
    • s factor
  59. factor analysis
    a statistical method for determining wherther certain items on a test correlate highly, thus forming a unified set or cluster of items
  60. g factor
    • a theoretical specific factor of intelligence underlying all distinct clusters of mental ability; part of spearmans two factor theory of intelligence
    • i.e high g, score high on all other areas
  61. s factor
    a theoretical specific factor uniquely tied to a distinct mental ability or area of function; part of spearman's two factor theroy on intelligence
  62. thurstone and primary mental abilities
    argued that intelligence is made up of seven distinct mental abilities; verbal comprehension, word fluency, numerical skill, spatial ability, associative memory, preceptual speed and reasoning = primary mental abilities 
  63. primary mental abilities
    • thurstons theory of primary mental abilities
    • all distinct, not a reflection of underlying general intelligence
  64. Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
    • theory that there is no single, unified intelligence, but instead several independent intelligences arising from different portions of the brain
    • he drew on brain damaged patients who lost certain abilities with others unaffected
    • also brought in spiritual intelligence, bodily intelligence
  65. savant syndrome
    • consistent with howard gardeners theory of multiple intelligences
    • score low on most areas but extremely high in one
  66. differences between gardners and thurstones
    • thurstone - mental functions he identified collectively constitute intelligence. gardner believed that each factor in itself is an intelligence
    • Gardner - conducted research in real world settings, believed it was the best way to asses
    • added a cultural component
  67. Robert sternberg's triachic theory of intelligence
    intelligence is made up of 3 interacting components; internal, external and experiential
  68. Sternberg - internal (analytic)
    relates to the internal processing of information, measured by intelligence tests
  69. sternberg - external (creative)
    some tasks are novel and require a special way of thinking (ex. going to russia for the first time)
  70. sternberg's - experiential
    helps us adapt to or improve our environments or select new environments
  71. facit knowledge
    • sternberg
    • suggested practical intelligence often relies on it
    • it is action oriented knowledge, acquired without direct help from others, that allows individuals to achieve goals they personally value