psychology chapter 10 - Class

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psychology chapter 10 - Class
2014-03-01 01:35:06

chapter 10 - class notes
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  1. Intelligence
    • Ability to learn
    • Ability to apply learned material to life and meet the demands of the environment
  2. metacognition
    ability to understand and control one's cognitive activity
  3. spearman
    initially believed that individuals have a general intelligence 'g', that is responsible for the performance on all mental tests
  4. spearman's two-factor theory
    • Factor analysis: statistical method to
    • determine whether two or more items
    • correlate, thus forming a cluster

    s-factor: specific factor tied to a specific area of functioning

    - g-factor: general factor relating to all clusters
  5. Multiple factor theories
    abandoned concept of general intelligence and looked for specific factors
  6. Lewis Thurstone
    • primary mental abilities - do not rely on general intelligence
    • -verbal comp
    • -word fluency
    • -numberical skills
    • -spatial visualization
    • -associative memory
    • -perceptual speed
    • -reasoning
  7. Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
    • intelligence is made up of three interacting components
    • practical dimension (experiential) apply one's experience with the external world to handle new and complex tasks
    • analytic dimension (internal) - use one's intelligence to solve a specific problem that has one correct answer
    • creative dimension (external) - determine what needs to be done, how best to do it and monitor performance
  8. Stephen ceci: bio-ecological model of intelligence
    • modern multifactor theory
    • intelligence is a function of interaction between: innate potential abilities, environment, motivation
  9. emotional intelligence
    • ability to percieve, express, assimilate and regulate emotion
    • possess empathy and emotional control
  10. personality characteristics
    intelligence is the cognitive part of personality
  11. galton - theory of psychophysical performance
    • physchic energy and heightenend sensitivity to external stimul
    • developed tests of an individuals sensory processing, motor skills and reaction time
  12. alfred binet and theodore simon
    • developed first intelligence test
    • identifies students who need extra help
    • tests many normal children at each age
    • compares individuals score to "normal" scores
    • mental age
    • chronological age
  13. lewis terman (stanford university)
    • developed american version of the binet-simon test, called the stanford-binet test, for ages 2-adult
    • used the intelligence quotient
  14. david wechsler
    • developed the wais and wisc
    • performance and verbal subtests
    • recognized two problems with IQ tests
    • 1.) the distinction between mental and chronological age becomes less informative with testing adults
    • 2.) the need for greater fairness when testing people who do not speak english
    • compared individual scores to scores obtained over a very large sample of individuals using the normal distribution
  15. psycometric approach
    measure intelligence through psychological testing
  16. split half relieability
    divide the items on a single test among two groups
  17. normal distribution of IQ
    the average IQ score is 100 with standard deviations of 15
  18. eugenics
    terman believed that his IQ test could help determine the "fitness" of individuals to reproduce
  19. David Wechsler Scales
    • includes subscales for verbal and performance skills
    • three versions: one for adults, one for children and adolescents and one for younger chidlren
  20. How well does standford binet and wais predict performance
    • - High degrees of reliability
    • Predictive of school performance  
    • High correlation between scores and number of years of schooling  
    • Some correlation with occupational and social achievements, income, and health 
    • related behaviours, including better health throughout life, greater independence during old age, and a longer lifespan
  21. progressive matrices test
    • emphasizes abstract, nonberbal skills
    • less culture bias
  22. IQ- Genes and Environment
    • Stoolmiller (1999) estimated the effects of the environment on IQ to be 57%.
    • Microenvironment 
    • Selecting the environment as we age
  23. Group Differences in IQ
    • Within-group versus between-group differences - Genetics accounts for 72% of IQ variation in affluent environments.
    • - Genetics accounts for 15% of IQ variation in impoverished environments.
    • - Racial differences 
    • Test biases -
    • Environmental differences -
    • Sex differences  
  24. Group Differences in IQ scores - Race
    • Racial groups differ in their average scores on intelligence tests
    • - High-scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income
    • - Aboriginal Canadians score, on average, 15 to 20 points lower on intelligence tests than their non
    • - Aboriginal contemporaries
    • - Aboriginal students are twice as likely to drop out of high school
    • - Aboriginal children and youth need to work in school systems that acknowledge and celebrate Aboriginal values and heritage
    • - Public policy aimed at making more equitable resources available throughout society would lead to more similar intelligence test scores across different groups
  25. head start
    • - Head Start is a government-funded preschool program that serves children who come from families below the poverty line
    • - Aims to enhance children’s chances for success in school and beyond by boosting their cognitive and social skills
  26. Environmental enrichment: does it work?
    • It produces short-term increases in cognitive skills, but only for impoverished children
    • - It increases children’s readiness for school, enhances emotional intelligence, reduces school dropouts, and decreases later criminality
    • - Better programs:
    • - Begin early in life and continue
    • - Are intensive (more hours per day and more days per year)
    • - Include programs for maintaining positive attitudes and behaviours
  27. what happens in the brain - IQ
    • both lateral prefrontal cortexes are activated when performing spatial tasks
    • the left lateral prefrontal cortex is activated when performing verbal tasks
  28. giftedness
    • natural ability, talent or intelligence
    • the top 1-2 percent of a tested pop.
    • evident at a young age
    • environmental contributors
    • intrinsically motivated
    • may occur in some areas and not others (social)