wr2 content

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  1. pg1
    How to write a report?
    Describe and interpret the study to test one or more hypotheses.
  2. pg1
    what is hypothesis?
    A simple statement predicting a relationship between a cause and an effect.
  3. Pg1
    What is the purpose of writing a research report?
    One way of communicating the results of original research to the scientific community.
  4. Pg1
    What are the four main steps to write report?
    • 1. Read scientific literature --> identify arguemtns, theories, issues to assess. Review the literature in the INTRODUCTION of your research reportm which concludes with a statement of your aims and hypotheses.
    • 2. Collect data of these hypotheses. Describe how collected in METHOD section.
    • 3. Analyse these data using various statistical procedures. Report outcome in RESULTS section.
    • 4. Interpret and explain these data, dicuss how your study contributes to original findings. Present these considerations in DISCUSSION section.
  5. pg 2
    List down seven marker's criteria.
    • 1. Interpreted and explained findings, thoughtful discussion of theoretical and practical implications of results and careful consideration of limitation of your research.
    • 2. introduction in which hypotheses evolved logicallt and clearly from theoretical and empirical work you cited
    • 3. Analysed data, specified results, gave details of any statistical procedures employed.
    • 4. communicated the details of the experimental method CONCISELY and PRECISELY so that someone can replicate the study
    • 5. Read sufficiently and cited that reading effectively and precisely to support your hypotheses and discussion.
    • 6. Clear and accurate expression: Grammar,, spelling, punctuation
    • 7. APA style
  6. pg 2-3
    List the structure of report. With level heading
    • Level 1 headings: Abstract, Introduction, References, Appendices.
    • Method divided into 3 main subsections: Participants, materials, and procedures --> LVL 2 headings
  7. Pg 3

    List the order of writing report.

    Hint 6 steps
    • 1. Method: Describe how study conducted.
    • 2. Results: Helps focus on main issues
    • 3. Discussion: Helps focus whether hypothesis is supported
    • 4. Introduction: Drafted the discussion, clarify arguement need to present in intro.
    • 5. Abstract and Title: Summaries entire report. Clear of title
    • 6. Reference and Appendices: Add them in.
  8. Pg3.

    What tenses should be use for report?
    • Primarily past tense.
    • Used PRESENT TENSE to refer other parts of report.
    • FUTURE TENSE for hypotheses
  9. pg 4

    When to use numbers?
    • 1) if measurements
    • 2) max to 2 d.p. UNLESS PROBABILITY
    • 3) Number with less than 1 with 0 before d.p
    • 3) % with no d.p
    • 4) Number from 10 onwards
  10. Pg 4-5
    What should be in cover sheet, title and title page?
    • Cover sheet: Name, student ID no, name of instrutor, code and name of unit, subject, course, date and time of submission.
    • Title page: Running head + page number. First letter of each major word CAPITALISED. Name and university centered. Followed by Author's note - name and name of department and university, thanks to people who help with report, addresses for correspondence about the report, include postal and email address

    NOTE: Title should also appear on 3rd page of your introduction. and fewer than 15 words. Title outline relationship between principal variables or highlight the main issue.

    Title: with variable manipulated - effects, influence, impact. with no manipulation - association between/relationship between. Examining mediation/moderation - (pairs of variables are causally related) effect_Role of negative emotions, association between...vary with age.
  11. pg 5

    How to write abstract?
    • On 2nd page after title page. Lvl 1 heading follow with a single, unindented paragraph.
    • Complete summary of report in fewer than 150 words.
    • Purpose: summarise topic and outcome of study - enable readers whether need to read further.
  12. pg5:

    List the order of abstract.

    HINT: 8 steps
    • 1) introduce topic (importance). Rare to have citation inside.
    • 2) Aim of study, include statement of hypotheses.
    • 3) Specify no of participant, sex, age or ethnicity which are critical to study.
    • 4) Summarise procedures participants completed.
    • 5) Outline conditions to which participants were assigned
    • 6) Describe measures or apparatus used
    • 7) Specify principal findings. Give effect sizes.
    • 8) Conclusion of study.
  13. pg 5-8
    How to write introduction?
    Begin on new page.NOT headed as INTRODUCTION for lvl 1 heading instead the TITLE OF REPORT.

    Purpose: explain why the study was conducted. comprehensive review of relevant literature and develop a convincing justification for the aims and hypotheses of study. 1/3 of report.

    • STEP1: 
    • 1st para: Importance of study. Relate to people or animals or practical or theoretical issue that is tropical or vital.
    • The rest: Present info - statistics, theories, conclusions from previous research demonstrating the problems that would arise if the main issue were not addressed.

    • STEP 2:
    • Summaries both past studies and explored own issue as well as theories that explain these findings. 
    • a) Theories from which own hypotheses were derived.
    • b) Outline findings of previous studies that verify or contradict these theories
    • c) identify problems or shortcomings of past research that will be addressed by study.

    • STEP 3:
    • Link previous and current study.

    • STEP 4:
    • Aim of research. Brief summary of research design and method.

    • STEP 5: Normal prose and as complete sentences. Last para of introduction.
    • a) Follow logically from a theory or an argument.
    • b) Indicate the direction of a relationship
    • c) Use words that match how the variables will be measured in study
    • d) Testable - research cannot prove the absence of an effect.
  14. pg 8-12

    How to write method?

    HINT: 4 steps
    After introduction on the same page and a LVL 1 heading.  Divided into subsections which are lvl 2 headings.

    Purpose: researcher can replicate study. Sentence must be complete and intelligible.

    • Step 1: Describe participants/Subjects
    • a) no of males and females
    • b) the mean and standard deviation of their ages, or range of ages
    • c) their occupation or category
    • d) Demographics
    • e) how they were recruited
    • f) payment or reward participants receive
    • g) criteria that determined eligibility to participate.
    • for animals will be-
    • a) name, strains, supplier of species
    • b) no of males and female
    • c) mean and standard deviation of their ages and weights
    • d) lighting, temperature, fedding schedule
    • e) info that could influence result.

    • STEP 2: materials. responded? frequency? list? presented in? scale rating?
    • if use technical equipment (computer program/equipment - separate subsection apparatus.
    • apparatus. view? model? by? whom? to record?
    • STEP 3: Describe procedure. during the time participants involve in study.
    • a) summarise the instruction and feedback that participants received. lengthy verbal in appendix.
    • b) how they were assigned to conditions?
    • c) specify task that they completed
    • d) indicate completed task alone or in groups*.
    • 4) Describing the design.clarify independent and dependent variables.
  15. pg 13-20

    How to write results?

    HINT: 4 steps
    • After method. Lvl 1 heading results.
    • a) procedures used to treat the data
    • b) descriptive statistics you calculated to summarise the data
    • c) inferential statistics tests conducted to test hypotheses

    STEP 1: treating data.describe method used to calculate score, transform data and to assess statistical assumptions.

    • STEP 2: Summarise data
    • descriptive statistics, measures of central tendency and variability - mean and standard deviation for each of experimental conditions. or others etc.
    • a) intro tables and figures in the text before presented in report
    • b) no. to identify each table and figure
    • c) highlight main patterns that emerge from these tables
    • d) ensure no duplication in the text
    • e) follow APA 

    • tables - Text should highlight the vital features of any table. Set table in sans-serif. a) use arabics numerals for caption.
    • b) give title below caption.
    • c) give unit in bracket
    • d) italicise the title and capitalise the first letter of each major word.
    • e) data should be aligned vertically
    • f) ensure para not indented.
    • g) set notes in a smaller font than the rest of table
    • h) note that apply to whole table and label "note"
    • i) if require use superscripts
    • j) if applicable end with probability note

    • Figures - graphs, pictures, diagrams.
    • Graphs
    • a) scale values on each axis
    • b) vertical size approx 2/3 of hori size
    • c)form a box with axis 
    • d) place axis tick marks inside box
    • e) place axis tick values outside box
    • f) label each axis

    • points,lines,bars -
    • a) hori axis represent one of independent variable.
    • b) ver axis measure or dependent variable
    • c) black, white, striped shadings - conditions of other variables

    • line graphs
    • a) hori axis represent numerical independent variable having most levels.
    • b) ver axis dependent variable
    • c) more than one line - other conditions
    • d) data points as variously chaped symbols
    • e) connect data with different sort of lines, solid/dotted

    Legend - in its own box and place it inside figure box.

    • Figure caption -
    • a) use small snas-serif, boldface font
    • use arabic numerals for the figure no.
    • b) separate figure no from caption title with full stop
    • c) italicise label
    • d) caption title bried but meaningful, capitalise first letter
    • e) double line spacing

    • STEP 3: Testing hypotheses
    • a) specify test 
    • b) present outcome
    • c) integrate info with descriptive statistics

    • Report results -
    • a) specify direction of any difference
    • b) present exact values
    • c) whether difference is significant
    • d) descriptive statistics
    • numerical to 2d.p

    • Report statistics -
    • a) separate inferential statistics from sentence with a comma
    • b)Italicise all statistical symbols that are standard alphabetic letters not Greek letters
    • c) inferential statistical test - present name, degree of freedom in brackets, its value and exact probility
    • d) for x2 test of independence include overall sample size in brackets
    • e) for correlations - specify sample size rather than degree of freedom
    • f) omit 0 that appears in front of d.p that take values only between 1 and -1

    • STEP 4: Reporting units
    • a) use SI unit. units should be abbreviated without full stops.

  16. pg 21-23
    How to write discussion?

    HINT: 7 steps
    After results. Lvl 1 heading Discussion. 35% words of report. with intro about 65%

    • 1) Reiterating the aim/method of study. Summarise all the important findings and state whether they supported the hypotheses. 
    • 2) Discuss each principal findings that supported hypotheses. Interpret meaning of findings and discuss how they contribute to existing body of knowledge about research topic
    • a) summaries major similarities & differences between findings and previous research. if contradict: identify differences and explain
    • b) summaries theories explanations that findings support & explain
    • c) alternative explanation that could accomodate findings. e.g. spurious variables
    • 3) Discuss non-significant findings
    • a) Consider amendments to the study that could have increased its power.
    • b)Challenge the suitability of any theory used to develop hypotheses.
    • c) identify possible suppressor variables with obscure anticipated relationship
    • d) outline theories that are consistent with the non-significant findings.
    • 4) discuss unexpected significant findings: Explain any significant findings.alternative findings.
    • 5) State practical and theoretical importance. integrate into a broader theories and framework.  related to study but not central to hypotheses.
    • 6) Suggest lmitation and future research. direction of causality, spurious variables, confounds, measurement errors, and generality.
    • 7) concluding
    • a) Aim and principal findings in one or two sentences.
    • b) Theories these findings support in one or two sentences
    • c) complications or limitations of study
    • d) potential benefits that would be experienced if the issue that was introduced in the first para was resolved.
  17. pg24

    What is referencing, appendices, dealing with variation in requirement?
    referencing: cited in report must appear in ALPHABETICAL LIST after discussion. New page + lvl 1 heading references. Only sources cited in text appear in reference list.

    • Appending appendices:
    • a)Begin on new page after references with lvl 1 heading such as Appendix A or B.
    • b) Table captions should include capital letter, hyphen, no. e.g. table B-1 refers to first table in Appendix B.
    • c) Allude to every appendix in text. 

    • Dealing with variations in requirements:
    • a) to give student ID or name on title page
    • b) to right justify
    • c) max no of words in abstract
    • d) provide keywords following abstract
    • e) whether refer as subjects/participants
    • f) info on ethical procedures
    • g) statistical assumptions and conditions were fulfilled
    • h) include confidence intervals and effect sizes in result section
    • i) effect sizes in abstract?
    • j) info is required in appendices
    • k) include supplementary material
    • l) footnotes?
    • m) exact probability values or 2-3 d.p
  18. pg 25
    List the examples in report.

    HINT:36 hints
    • pg 25: Remember the cover sheet.
    • pg 26: Begin running head and page numbers.
    • pg 27: a) The report should be double spaced.
    • b) 1st sentence introduces topic
    • c) Clause indicated the aim
    • d) Part summaries the procedure and task
    • e) Theoretical/practical implication
    • g) emplicitly state the results + gives effect size.
    • pg 28: a) Main text begins on a new page with title
    • b) 1st and subsequent para are indented by about 5 spaces
    • c) 1st sentence engage reader's interest
    • d) remaining of 1st para highlight the importance of the topic
    • e) whole intro - provide enough details to show the readers what authors did, found, concluded
    • f) introduce some theoretical arguments
    • pg29: a) Introduces evidence to evaluate the theory described in previous para.
    • b) challenged the validity of this study.
    • pg30: a) summaries the aim of the study.
    • b) outline the method
    • c) Hypothesis specifies direction and emerges from the theory described in previous paragraph.
    • d) Methods, results and discussion do not begin on new page.
    • e) Materials section gives specific details because subtle features of this manipulation could affect the results.
    • pg32: a) whether the difference is significant, and the direction of this finding, are specified in the same sentence.
    • b) e.g. t(98)=4.48, p<.001 : these statistical tests yield unlikely high effect sizes. In fact, the data are made up for this example report.
    • c) fig. 1 illustrate the principal findings of the report.
    • d) Fig appear with its caption on the same page as it is referred to in the text
    • e) Sentence briefly reiterate the aim and method
    • pg 33: a) Summaries the main results
    • b) relates the results to propsed theoretical argument
    • c) gives alternative explainations
    • d) results related to previous findings
    • e) Gives discussion of results that do not support the hypotheses
    • f) Give possible limitations of the study
    • pg34: a) gives suggestion for future research to overcome the limitations
    • b) gives practical implications of the results
    • c) Gives conclusion of the report
    • pg35: reference begin on a new page
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wr2 content
2014-03-02 16:22:50

wr2 p2
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