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Founded personal construct theory (PCT)
What type of therapy is used for helping adolescents and adults who stutter?
What are personal constructs?
they are bi-polar, ued to make judgements about another; developed from past experience and form the basis for the planning and anticipation of events; constructs cluster into subsystems; and construct systems can be elaborated
What is George Kelly's fundamental postulate?
A person’s processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events
- • Our core constructs govern our identity
- • We anticipate events by construing their replications
- • We find it difficult to anticipate events that lie outside our core constructs (e.g. we have never had a Plexico test so we went around asking about it because it was not part of our construct but now that it is in our experience, we won’t ask as much)
What are the principles of personal construct theory?
Construction corollary, individuality corollary, organization corollary, dichotomy corollary, choice corollary, range corollary, experience corollary, modulation corollary, fragmentation corollary, commonality corollary, and sociality corollary
What is the construction corollary?
- Man anticipates events by construing their replication.
- Constructs are used to infer similarity and are also used to differentiate between two events
What is the individuality corollary?
- Persons differ from each other in their constructions of events
- No two persons would ever have identical systems
What is the organization corollary?
- Each person characteristically evolves, for his convenience in anticipating events, a construction system embracing ordinal relationships between constructs.
- Allows for inference and movement within a system
What is the dichotomy corollary?
- Person’s construction system is composed of a finite number of dichotomous constructs
- Black and white – no shades of gray
- Used to make a contrast between two groups
- Allow you to distinguish or group elements
What is the choice corollary?
- A person chooses for himself that alternative in a dichotomized construct through which he anticipates the greater possibility for the elaboration of his system.
- Person seek to further define and extend their system through new fields of application.
What is the range corollary?
- A construct is convenient for the anticipation of a finite range of events only.
- No construct can cover an entire range of events, A construct has its focus of convenience.
What is the experience corollary?
- A person’s construction system varies as he successively construes the replication of events
- Experience involves the anticipation and revision of constructions
What is the modulation corollary?
- The variation in a person’s construction system is limited by the permeability of the constructs within whose ranges of convenience the variants lie.
- Capacity of a construct to be used as a referent for novel events and accept new subordinate constructions within its range of experience
What is the fragmentation corollary?
- A person may successively employ a variety of construction subsystems which are inferentially incompatible with each other
- A person can move from a to b, and on to c without taking into account that c cannot be inferred from a. (e.g. intelligence → friends)
What is the commonality corollary?
- The extent that one person employs a construction of experience which is similar to that employed by another, his processes are psychologically similar to those of the other person
- It is possible for two people who confront different events and experiential cycles to end up with similar constructions of their experiences
What is the sociality corollary?
To the extent that one person construes the constructions processes of another, he may play a role in a social process involving the other person.
When you are not able to use our core constructs about ourselves, what might the results be?
Guilt, threat, anxiety, and/or hostility
acting in a way contradictory to one’s core constructs or core role culture
Guilt-- Dislodged from your core role which serves as the referent for life itself (“I feel fake”, “I don’t feel like it is my voice”, etc.
awareness of imminent comprehensive change to one’s core constructs
Threat-- This happens a lot in therapy because we challenge their assumptions (“Do you really think EVERYONE is going to laugh at you when you stutter?")
awareness that the events one is experiencing lay mostly outside the application of one’s construct system (e.g. new environment, new responsibilities, new role)
Anxiety-- This is like how you feel on the first day of clinic; Experiencing something that you have never experienced before – uncertainty
effort to validate evidence in favor of a prediction that has already been proven to be a failure.
- Hostility-- Their constructs are so rigid, they won’t allow another view. When you encounter hostility, you know you have hit a core part of this person.
- Example: how people feel when you bring up religion and politics.
What is the primary way to facilitate change?
By experimenting with alternative constructions of events and testing these constructions via new behaviors. The behavior is less important than how the individual construes the outcome of the behavior.
For example, Challenge what they think. Ask them what they think will happen, test them and compare to the actual thing that happened. • A “bad scientist” forces reality to fit his/her constructs This would be them saying “Yeah, you tried it with 20 people, but if you did 20 more then they would respond the way I think”
When does constriction occur?
When a person narrows his perceptual fields in order to minimize apparent incompatibilities.