What are the three general groups of joints according to structure?
Fibrous, Cartilaginous, and Synovial
This type of joint articulates bones fastened together by a thin layer of dense connective tissue containing many collagenous fibers.
This type of joint articulates bones connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage.
This type of joint articulates ends of bones surrounded by a joint capsule; the articular bone ends are covered by hyaline cartilage and separated by synovial fluid; is diarthrotic.
What are the three classifications of joints according to the degree of movement possible at bony junctions?
Synarthrotic, Amphiarthrotic, and Diarthrotic
Joints that are classified as immovable.
Joints that are classified as slightly moveable.
Joints that are classified as freely moveable.
What are the three types of fibrous joints?
Syndesmosis, Suture, and Gomphosis
This type of fibrous joint is bound by interosseous ligament; is flexible and may be twisted, making it amphiarthrotic. (ex: articulation between the tibia and fibula)
This type of fibrous joint is only found between flat bones of the skull; is synarthrotic.
This type of fibrous joint is formed by the union of a cone-shaped bony process in a bony socket; is synarthrotic. (ex: root of tooth united with mandible)
These are membranous areas of the fetal skull that allow the skull to grow and change shape slightly during childbirth until they close and are replaced by sutures.
What surrounds the root of the tooth and attaches it to the maxilla?
What are the two types of cartilaginous joints?
Synchondrosis and Symphysis
In this type of cartilaginous joint, hyaline cartilage bands unite the bones; many are temporary joints that disappear during growth; is synarthrotic. (ex: between the manubrium and the first rib)
In this type of cartilaginous joint, articular surfaces of bones are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage which is attached to a pad of fibrocartilage; has limited movement, like when the back is bent or twisted. (ex: joints between the bodies of vertebrae)
In this type of synovial joint, a ball-shaped head of one bone articulates with a cup-shaped socket of another; moves in all planes, including rotation. (ex: shoulder, hip)
In this type of synovial joint, the oval-shaped head of one bone articulates with elliptical cavity of another; moves in different planes, but no rotation. (ex: joints between metacarpals and phalanges)
In this type of synovial joint, articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved; has sliding or twisting movements. (ex: joints between bones of wrist and ankle)
Plane or Gliding Joint
In this type of synovial joint, the convex surface of one bone articulates with the concave surface of another; has flexion and extension movements. (ex: elbow, joints of phalanges)
In this type of synovial joint, the cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with a ring of bone and ligament; has rotation movement. (ex: joint between proximal ends of radius and ulna)
In this type of synovial joint, articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions, the surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of another; has movements in two planes. (ex: joint between the carpal and metacarpal of thumb)
Thin layer of hyaline cartilage on the articular ends of bones in a synovial joint that resists wear and minimizes friction.
A tubular structure that has two distinct layers that hold together the bones of the synovial joint.
Bundles of strong, tough collagenous fibers that reinforce the joint capsule and help bind the articular ends of the bones; they help prevent excessive movement at the joint.
Multifunctional vascular lining of loose, connective tissue that covers nearly all surfaces within the joint capsule; stores adipose tissue and forms fatty pads; secretes synovial fluid, and reabsorbs it for healing purposes.
Thick fluid secreted by the synovial membrane that moistens and lubricates the smooth cartilaginous surfaces of the joint; helps supply articular cartilage with nutrients; contains stem cells for ligament regeneration following injury.
Discs of fibrocartilage between the articular surfaces of bones in a synovial joint that divides the joint into two compartments. (ex: in the knee joint, they cushion the articulating surfaces and help distribute body weight onto them)
Fluid-filled sacs that contain synovial fluid and are commonly located between the skin and underlying bony prominences; they cushion and aid the movement of tendons that glide over bony parts or other tendons.