Ch8A.txt

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aphy101
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264493
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Ch8A.txt
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2014-03-01 12:18:27
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Ch 8 - Types of Joints
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  1. What are the three general groups of joints according to structure?
    Fibrous, Cartilaginous, and Synovial
  2. This type of joint articulates bones fastened together by a thin layer of dense connective tissue containing many collagenous fibers.
    Fibrous Joints
  3. This type of joint articulates bones connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage.
    Cartilaginous Joints
  4. This type of joint articulates ends of bones surrounded by a joint capsule; the articular bone ends are covered by hyaline cartilage and separated by synovial fluid; is diarthrotic.
    Synovial Joints
  5. What are the three classifications of joints according to the degree of movement possible at bony junctions?
    Synarthrotic, Amphiarthrotic, and Diarthrotic
  6. Joints that are classified as immovable.
    Synarthrotic
  7. Joints that are classified as slightly moveable.
    Amphiarthrotic
  8. Joints that are classified as freely moveable.
    Diarthrotic
  9. What are the three types of fibrous joints?
    Syndesmosis, Suture, and Gomphosis
  10. This type of fibrous joint is bound by interosseous ligament; is flexible and may be twisted, making it amphiarthrotic. (ex: articulation between the tibia and fibula)
    Syndesmosis
  11. This type of fibrous joint is only found between flat bones of the skull; is synarthrotic.
    Suture
  12. This type of fibrous joint is formed by the union of a cone-shaped bony process in a bony socket; is synarthrotic. (ex: root of tooth united with mandible)
    Gomphosis
  13. These are membranous areas of the fetal skull that allow the skull to grow and change shape slightly during childbirth until they close and are replaced by sutures.
    Fontanels
  14. What surrounds the root of the tooth and attaches it to the maxilla?
    Periodontal Ligament
  15. What are the two types of cartilaginous joints?
    Synchondrosis and Symphysis
  16. In this type of cartilaginous joint, hyaline cartilage bands unite the bones; many are temporary joints that disappear during growth; is synarthrotic. (ex: between the manubrium and the first rib)
    Synchondrosis
  17. In this type of cartilaginous joint, articular surfaces of bones are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage which is attached to a pad of fibrocartilage; has limited movement, like when the back is bent or twisted. (ex: joints between the bodies of vertebrae)
    Symphysis
  18. In this type of synovial joint, a ball-shaped head of one bone articulates with a cup-shaped socket of another; moves in all planes, including rotation. (ex: shoulder, hip)
    Ball-and-Socket Joint
  19. In this type of synovial joint, the oval-shaped head of one bone articulates with elliptical cavity of another; moves in different planes, but no rotation. (ex: joints between metacarpals and phalanges)
    Condylar Joint
  20. In this type of synovial joint, articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved; has sliding or twisting movements. (ex: joints between bones of wrist and ankle)
    Plane or Gliding Joint
  21. In this type of synovial joint, the convex surface of one bone articulates with the concave surface of another; has flexion and extension movements. (ex: elbow, joints of phalanges)
    Hinge Joint
  22. In this type of synovial joint, the cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with a ring of bone and ligament; has rotation movement. (ex: joint between proximal ends of radius and ulna)
    Pivot Joint
  23. In this type of synovial joint, articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions, the surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of another; has movements in two planes. (ex: joint between the carpal and metacarpal of thumb)
    Saddle Joint
  24. Thin layer of hyaline cartilage on the articular ends of bones in a synovial joint that resists wear and minimizes friction.
    Articular Cartilage
  25. A tubular structure that has two distinct layers that hold together the bones of the synovial joint.
    Joint Capsule
  26. Bundles of strong, tough collagenous fibers that reinforce the joint capsule and help bind the articular ends of the bones; they help prevent excessive movement at the joint.
    Ligaments
  27. Multifunctional vascular lining of loose, connective tissue that covers nearly all surfaces within the joint capsule; stores adipose tissue and forms fatty pads; secretes synovial fluid, and reabsorbs it for healing purposes.
    Synovial Membrane
  28. Thick fluid secreted by the synovial membrane that moistens and lubricates the smooth cartilaginous surfaces of the joint; helps supply articular cartilage with nutrients; contains stem cells for ligament regeneration following injury.
    Synovial Fluid
  29. Discs of fibrocartilage between the articular surfaces of bones in a synovial joint that divides the joint into two compartments. (ex: in the knee joint, they cushion the articulating surfaces and help distribute body weight onto them)
    Menisci
  30. Fluid-filled sacs that contain synovial fluid and are commonly located between the skin and underlying bony prominences; they cushion and aid the movement of tendons that glide over bony parts or other tendons.
    Bursae

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