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Social Welfare Policy
a subset of social policy, regulates the provision of benefits to people to meet basic life needs, such as employment, income, food, housing, health care and relationships.
framework of commonly held beliefs through which we view the world.
Beliefs rarely examined- simply believed to be true.
Each generation accepts the basic ideological suppositions of the preceding one.
What does policy determine?
The major goals of service, characteristics of cliental
Who will get service
Specifies or restricts options for clients
The theoretical focus of services
Historical background of policy analysis
Examine policies that were adopted in the past and asses how they faired- continuity requires the analysts identifies historical problems that led to the original policy
Don't reinvent the wheel
Problems that necessitate the policy
The analyst must understand the parameters of the problem and must be familiar with the nature, magnitude and scope of the problem and the effected populations
Policy Description Part 1
1) How they policy is expected to work
2) Resources or opportunities the policy is expected to provide
3) Who will be covered and how?
4) How the policy will be implemented
5) Expected short and long term goals and outcomes of the policy
6) Administrative auspices under which the policy will be logged
7) The funding mechanism including short and long term funding commitments
8) The agencies or organizations that have overall responsibility for overseeing, evaluation and coordinating the policy
9) The criteria used to determine the effectiveness of the policy
10) The length of time the policy is expected to be in existence
11) The knowledge base os scientific undergirding for the policy
- Policy Goals:
- Political Feasibility: which groups will oppose or support
- Economic Feasibility: adequate funding?
- Administrative Feasibility: must posses the the personnel, resources skills and expertise need to effectively implement the policy
What are they? Use GovTrack to keep tabs on your representatives in Congress or to research pending legislation that might impact your life or business
How would you use it? To find out info on members of congress, bills an resolutions, voting records and committees
What are they? In the spirit of Thomas Jefferson, legislative information from the Library of Congress
- Differentiation- ???
- How would you use it? To find out information on....
- Bills, Resolutions
- Activity in Congress
- Congressional Record
- Schedules, Calendars
- Committee Information
- Presidential Nominations
- Government Resources
- For Teachers
What are they? nonpartisan research organization that reveals money’s influence on politics in the U.S. Congress and in the California and Wisconsin state legislatures.
Differentiation? non profit?
- How would you use it?
- Bills, legislators, interest groups, contributions, companies, topics (education, government affairs, natural resources, culture & social issues, business & labor, budget & economy)
What are they? Utah State Legislature Site
- How would you use it?
- Search for bill (what it is, and where it is at in the process of being passed), enter representatives name and will show what bills they support, updated info on 2014 Legislative session, daily video/audio, info on Senate & House, Legislative histories, staff offices, job opportunities
Religion: English Poor Laws
Government responsibility discharged through the established church
Three classes of dependents: needy children, able bodied, and the worthy poor
Religion: Colonial America
Those who are able bodies and yet unemployed are sinners
Religion: The Second Great Awakening
- 1) Through religious impulse for reform was channeled into private organization s attempting to effect public change
- 2) Female leaders mobilized and trained
- 3) African American clergy began to form to lead African american converts
Religion: The Civil War
Churches and private organizations were generous
- Dorothea DIx: Mentally Ill
- Freedman's Bureau for helping slaves
Religion: Late 19th & Early 20th Centuries
Lots of immigration
Social Darwinism: survival of the fittest: indifference toward urban poor in the north and white indifference to freedman's conditions in the south
Religion: Progressive Movement
Believed that the state had a responsibility to protect the interests of the public, especially those who were vulnerable
Religion: Great Depression and the New Deal
Billions of dollars spent on relief efforts
Public works to employ ~ 3.2 million of month
Min. wage, max work week, unions, abolishment of child labor
Included national old-age retirement system, federal grants to states for maternal child and disabled welfare service and a federal state unemployment system.
The Great Society
Lyndon B Johnsons- "War on Poverty"
- Civil Rights Act
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act
- Capped public assistance benefits
- Ended AFDC
- Ended entitlement
- Is the official, federal poverty measure and is used primarily for statistical [purposes
- Ex: estimates # of americans in poverty each each
Plagued by structural problems:
Is used to determine eligibility requirements for federal programs such as Head Start, Food Stamps, Free Lunch
Ex: family of 4 poverty guideline is $20,460 while threshold is $21,386
Branches of Government: Executive
President is responsible for implementing and enforcing the laws written by Congress
Branches of Government: Legislative
The Legislative Branch consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate
The Constitution grants Congress the sole authority to enact legislation
Branches of Government: Judicial
Federal courts enjoy the sole power to interpret the law, determine the constitutionality of the law, and apply it to individual cases.
The Legislative Process
The first step in the legislative process is the introduction of a bill to Congress. Anyone can write it, but only members of Congress can introduce legislation.
After being introduced, a bill is referred to the appropriate committee for review. Each committee oversees a specific policy area
A bill is first considered in a subcommittee, where it may be accepted, amended, or rejected entirely. If the members of the subcommittee agree to move a bill forward, it is reported to the full committee
A bill must pass both houses of Congress before it goes to the President for consideration.
3 Policies Central to US social policy
Federal Income Tax: A progressive tax where the wealthy are taxed at a higher rate
Social Security Withholding Tax: Payroll taxes withheld from checks Regressive- lower income workers pay the same as wealthy
Earned Income Tax Credit: A refundable tax credit sent by check to low-wage workers, especially those with children, who have earned below a certain income
Policies established by tax resources
- like private insurance, set of money set aside by government to be used at event of workers death, retirement, disability or unemployment, entitled based on previous contributions
- Social Security:
- Public Assistance: government benefits provided to the needy, usually in the form of cash or vouchers.
- TANF: family welfare was restricted to 16.5 billion when AFDC was replaced by TANF. Block grant based on workfare, time-limited and strict work participation.
- In Kind Assistance: non cash goods or services provided by the government that function as substitute for cash
- Food Stamps: Section 8 Housing
EITC: tax rebate
Social Security Insurance (SSI)
Supplemental Security Income- part of social security act. Provide cash assistance to the elderly and to disabled, poor individuals including children.
Means-tested, federally administered through general tax revenue
To qualify you must have limited resources
General Assistance (GA)
Cash and in kind assistance programs financed and administered entirely by the sate county or locality.
Designed to meet short term needs until federal funded assistance is available
AFDC to TANF
AFDC has been a sore spot for conversation because of the amount of government responsibility
Social Insurance Vs. Public Assistance
- Social Insurance- like private insurance, set of money set aside by government to be used at event of workers death, retirement, disability or unemployment, entitled based on previous contributions- not stigmatized
- Funded: pay as you go system
- EX: Medicare, Social Security
- Public Assistance- meant to be a safety net- so that people recieve basic services and do not fall below a a given poverty line. subject to means test and are based entirely on need- more stigmatized
- Funded: from general tax revenue- not occupationally linked.
- EX: TANF, Medicaid, WIC, Food Stamps
Moral, Social, and Theological underpinnings of discrimination
Bible: inferiority of women, sin of homosexuality, and necessity of separating races
Social Darwinism: Example is PMS, African Americans are racially inferior based on intelligence testing
Core Components of Discrimination
- Against people with disabilities