Policy Midterm

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  1. Social Welfare Policy
    a subset of social policy, regulates the provision of benefits to people to meet basic life needs, such as employment, income, food, housing, health care and relationships.
  2. Ideology
    framework of commonly held beliefs through which we view the world. 

    Beliefs rarely examined- simply believed to be true. 

    Each generation accepts the basic ideological suppositions of the preceding one.
  3. What does policy determine?
    The major goals of service, characteristics of cliental

    Who will get service

    Specifies or restricts options for clients

    The theoretical focus of services
  4. Historical background of policy analysis
    Examine policies that were adopted in the past and asses how they faired- continuity requires the analysts identifies historical problems that led to the original policy 

    Don't reinvent the wheel
  5. Problems that necessitate the policy
    The analyst must understand the parameters of the problem and must be familiar with the nature, magnitude and scope of the problem and the effected populations
  6. Policy Description Part 1
    1) How they policy is expected to work

    2) Resources or opportunities the policy is expected to provide

    3) Who will be covered and how? 

    4) How the policy will be implemented

    5) Expected short and long term goals and outcomes of the policy

    6) Administrative auspices under which the policy will be logged

    7) The funding mechanism including short and long term funding commitments 

    8) The agencies or organizations that have overall responsibility for overseeing, evaluation and coordinating the policy

     9) The criteria used to determine the effectiveness of the policy

     10) The length of time the policy is expected to be in existence  

    11) The knowledge base os scientific undergirding for the policy
  7. Policy Analysis
    • Policy Goals: 
    • Political Feasibility: which groups will oppose or support
    • Economic Feasibility: adequate funding? 
    • Administrative Feasibility: must posses the the personnel, resources skills and expertise need to effectively implement the policy
  8. www.govtrack.us
    What are they? Use GovTrack to keep tabs on your representatives in Congress or to research pending legislation that might impact your life or business

    Differentiation- ???

    How would you use it? To find out info on members of congress, bills an resolutions, voting records and committees
  9. thomas.loc.gov
    What are they? In the spirit of Thomas Jefferson, legislative information from the Library of Congress

    • Differentiation- ???
    • How would you use it? To find out information on....
    • Bills, Resolutions
    • Activity in Congress
    • Congressional Record
    • Schedules, Calendars
    • Committee Information
    • Presidential Nominations
    • Treaties
    • Government Resources
    • For Teachers
  10. maplight.org
    What are they? nonpartisan research organization that reveals money’s influence on politics in the U.S. Congress and in the California and Wisconsin state legislatures.

    Differentiation? non profit?

    • How would you use it?
    • Bills, legislators, interest groups, contributions, companies, topics (education, government affairs, natural resources, culture & social issues, business & labor, budget & economy)
  11. le.utah.gov
    What are they? Utah State Legislature Site


    • How would you use it?
    • Search for bill (what it is, and where it is at in the process of being passed), enter representatives name and will show what bills they support, updated info on 2014 Legislative session,  daily video/audio, info on Senate & House, Legislative histories, staff offices, job opportunities
  12. Religion: English Poor Laws
    Government responsibility discharged through the established church 

    Three classes of dependents: needy children, able bodied, and the worthy poor
  13. Religion: Colonial America
    Those who are able bodies and yet unemployed are sinners
  14. Religion: The Second Great Awakening
    • 1) Through religious impulse for reform was channeled into private organization s attempting to effect public change
    • 2) Female leaders mobilized and trained
    • 3) African American clergy began to form to lead African american converts
  15. Religion: The Civil War
    Churches and private organizations were generous

    • Dorothea DIx: Mentally Ill
    • Freedman's Bureau for helping slaves
  16. Religion: Late 19th & Early 20th Centuries
    Lots of immigration

    Social Darwinism: survival of the fittest: indifference toward urban poor in the north and white indifference to freedman's conditions in the south
  17. Religion: Progressive Movement
    Believed that the state had a responsibility to protect the interests of the public, especially those who were vulnerable
  18. Religion: Great Depression and the New Deal
    Billions of dollars spent on relief efforts

    Public works to employ ~ 3.2 million of month 

    Min. wage, max work week, unions, abolishment of child labor
  19. Social Security
    Included national old-age retirement system, federal grants to states for maternal child and disabled welfare service and a federal state unemployment system.
  20. The Great Society
    Lyndon B Johnsons- "War on Poverty" 

    • Medicare
    • Medicaid
    • Civil Rights Act
  21. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act
    • Capped public assistance benefits
    • Ended AFDC
    • Ended entitlement
  22. Poverty Threshold
    • Is the official, federal poverty measure and is used primarily for statistical [purposes
    • Ex: estimates # of americans in poverty each each

    Plagued by structural problems:
  23. Poverty Guideline
    Is used to determine eligibility requirements for federal programs such as Head Start, Food Stamps, Free Lunch 

    Ex: family of 4 poverty guideline is $20,460 while threshold is  $21,386
  24. Branches of Government: Executive
    President is responsible for implementing and enforcing the laws written by Congress
  25. Branches of Government: Legislative
    The Legislative Branch consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate

    The Constitution grants Congress the sole authority to enact legislation
  26. Branches of Government: Judicial
    Federal courts enjoy the sole power to interpret the law, determine the constitutionality of the law, and apply it to individual cases.
  27. The Legislative Process
    The first step in the legislative process is the introduction of a bill to Congress. Anyone can write it, but only members of Congress can introduce legislation. 

    After being introduced, a bill is referred to the appropriate committee for review. Each committee oversees a specific policy area

    A bill is first considered in a subcommittee, where it may be accepted, amended, or rejected entirely. If the members of the subcommittee agree to move a bill forward, it is reported to the full committee

    A bill must pass both houses of Congress before it goes to the President for consideration.
  28. 3 Policies Central to US social policy
    Federal Income Tax: A progressive tax where the wealthy are taxed at a higher rate

    Social Security Withholding Tax: Payroll taxes withheld from checks Regressive- lower income workers pay the same as wealthy

    Earned Income Tax Credit: A refundable tax credit sent by check to low-wage workers, especially those with children, who have earned below a certain income
  29. Policies established by tax resources
    Social Insurance- like private insurance, set of money set aside by government to be used at event of workers death, retirement, disability or unemployment, entitled based on previous contributions 

    • Social Security: 
    • Public Assistance: government benefits provided to the needy, usually in the form of cash or vouchers.
    • TANF: family welfare was restricted to 16.5 billion when AFDC was replaced by TANF. Block grant based on workfare, time-limited and strict work participation.
    • In Kind Assistance: non cash goods or services provided by the government that function as substitute for cash 
    •          Food Stamps:
    •          Section 8 Housing
    •           Medicaid 

    tax rebate
  30. Social Security Insurance (SSI)
    Supplemental Security Income- part of social security act. Provide cash assistance to the elderly and to disabled, poor individuals including children.

    Means-tested, federally administered through general tax revenue 

    To qualify you must have limited resources
  31. General Assistance (GA)
    Cash and in kind assistance programs financed and administered entirely by the sate county or locality.

    Designed to meet short term needs until federal funded assistance is available
  32. AFDC to TANF
    AFDC has been a sore spot for conversation because of the amount of government responsibility
  33. Social Insurance Vs. Public Assistance
    • Social Insurance- like private insurance, set of money set aside by government to be used at event of workers death, retirement, disability or unemployment, entitled based on previous contributions- not stigmatized
    • Funded: pay as you go system
    • EX: Medicare, Social Security
    • Public Assistance- 
    • meant to be a safety net- so that people recieve basic services and do not fall below a a given poverty line. subject to means test and are based entirely on need- more stigmatized 
    • Funded: from general tax revenue- not occupationally linked. 
    • EX: TANF, Medicaid, WIC, Food Stamps
  34. Moral, Social, and Theological underpinnings of discrimination
    Bible: inferiority of women, sin of homosexuality, and necessity of separating races 

    Social Darwinism: Example is PMS, African Americans are racially inferior based on intelligence testing
  35. Core Components of Discrimination
    • Racism
    • Homophobia
    • Agesim
    • Sexism
    • Against people with disabilities
Card Set:
Policy Midterm
2014-03-04 21:43:21

American Social Welfare Policy
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