psychology

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Dp
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264518
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psychology
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2014-05-07 18:24:48
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psychology test
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psychology test
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  1. Classical Conditioning
    A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
  2. Operant conditioning
    A form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
  3. Positive Reinforcement
    • Occurs when a response is strengthened (increased in frequency) because it is followed
    • by the arrival of a pleasant stimulus.
  4. Negative Reinforcement
    • Occurs when a response is strengthened (increases in frequency) because it is followed
    • by the removal of an unpleasant response.
  5. Punishment
    Occurs when a response is weakened because it is followed by the arrival of an unpleasant stimulus.
  6. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
    We do not only passively passively receive information, but we seek it out.  Indirect conditioning through observational learning.  Cognition leads us to hypothetical predictions.
  7. Self Efficiency
    One's beliefs about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcome affects personality.
  8. Humanism
    A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their free will and their potential for personal growth.  Drive towards personal growth.  Freedom, not paws of their environment.  We are conscious and rational.  Our subjective view of the world is more important then reality.
  9. Maslow's theory of self actualization
    Psychological needs, Safety and security needs, Social needs, Ego-needs, Self Actualization.
  10. Characteristics of self-actualized people
    Clear headed, live simply, naturally, problem centered, few but strong friendships, democratic character, ethical, philosophical, balanced
  11. Reciprocity Principle
    They give you a small gift, you then give them something small
  12. Foot in the door
    They set the bar high knowing you will think its high and then they ask for something lower.  They ask for $50, then $10
  13. Door in the face
    Set bar small, they ask for 1 minute of your time.
  14. Snap Judgements
    Those that are made quickly and based on only a few bits of information and preconceptions; they may not be accurate
  15. Attributions
    Inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior, others' behavior, and events.  Internal/external.  Stable/unstable, Controllability/uncontrollability
  16. Confirmation Bias
    Tendency to seek information that support's one's beliefs while not pursuing disconfirming information.  " Believing is seeing" rather then " Seeing is believing".
  17. Self- Full filling prophecy
    • Process by whereby expectations about a person cause the person to behave in ways that confirm the expectations.  –Perceiver has initial
    • impression of someone (target person)
    • –Perceiver behaves
    • toward target person in a way that is consistent with expectations
    • –Target person adjusts
    • behavior to perceiver’s actions
    • –Perceiver mistakenly
    • attributes target person’s behavior to internal causes
  18. Stereotypes
    Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group.  Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Physical appearance.  Reduce complexity to simplicity.
  19. Fundamental attribution error
    The tendency to explain other people's behavior as the result of personal, rather than situation, factors.
  20. Conformity
    Occurs when people yield to real or imagined pressure.  It
  21. Why do we conform
    Informational influence.  Normative influence.
  22. Empirical research
    Commonly used for interview, surveys, observation and experiments. It will usually include a methods or results section
  23. Independent
    It is manipulated
  24. Dependent
    Thought to be affected by independent variable
  25. Experimental Research
    Involves manipulating one variable to determine if changes in one variable cause changes in another variable.
  26. Correlational Research
    Look for the relationship b/t variables.  It could have a positive, negative or no correlation result
  27. Paradox of Progress
    We have more technology, more leisure time but we are not happier in general
  28. 8 types of Gerdner's Multiple Intelligeences
    Verbal/Linguistic.  Logical/ Mathematical.  Visual/Spatial.  Bodily/Kinesthetic.  Musical/Rhythmic.  Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Naturalistic.
  29. Not important to happiness
    Money, Age, Parenthood, Intelligence, Physical Atractiveness.
  30. Somewhat important to happiness.
    Health, Social activity, religion, culture
  31. Very important to happiness
    Love and Marriage. Work satisfaction, Genetics and Personality
  32. Learned Helplessness
    Organism can't avoid unpleasant stimulus
  33. Systematic Desensitization
    Therapy that helps you over come phobias. Form of counter conditioning.  You can over come fears through gradual and systematic exposure.

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