A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
A form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
Occurs when a response is strengthened (increased in frequency) because it is followed
by the arrival of a pleasant stimulus.
Occurs when a response is strengthened (increases in frequency) because it is followed
by the removal of an unpleasant response.
Occurs when a response is weakened because it is followed by the arrival of an unpleasant stimulus.
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
We do not only passively passively receive information, but we seek it out. Indirect conditioning through observational learning. Cognition leads us to hypothetical predictions.
One's beliefs about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcome affects personality.
A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their free will and their potential for personal growth. Drive towards personal growth. Freedom, not paws of their environment. We are conscious and rational. Our subjective view of the world is more important then reality.
Maslow's theory of self actualization
Psychological needs, Safety and security needs, Social needs, Ego-needs, Self Actualization.
Characteristics of self-actualized people
Clear headed, live simply, naturally, problem centered, few but strong friendships, democratic character, ethical, philosophical, balanced
They give you a small gift, you then give them something small
Foot in the door
They set the bar high knowing you will think its high and then they ask for something lower. They ask for $50, then $10
Door in the face
Set bar small, they ask for 1 minute of your time.
Those that are made quickly and based on only a few bits of information and preconceptions; they may not be accurate
Inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior, others' behavior, and events. Internal/external. Stable/unstable, Controllability/uncontrollability
Tendency to seek information that support's one's beliefs while not pursuing disconfirming information. " Believing is seeing" rather then " Seeing is believing".
Self- Full filling prophecy
Process by whereby expectations about a person cause the person to behave in ways that confirm the expectations. –Perceiver has initial
impression of someone (target person)
toward target person in a way that is consistent with expectations
–Target person adjusts
behavior to perceiver’s actions
attributes target person’s behavior to internal causes
Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group. Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Physical appearance. Reduce complexity to simplicity.
Fundamental attribution error
The tendency to explain other people's behavior as the result of personal, rather than situation, factors.
Occurs when people yield to real or imagined pressure. It
Why do we conform
Informational influence. Normative influence.
Commonly used for interview, surveys, observation and experiments. It will usually include a methods or results section
It is manipulated
Thought to be affected by independent variable
Involves manipulating one variable to determine if changes in one variable cause changes in another variable.
Look for the relationship b/t variables. It could have a positive, negative or no correlation result
Paradox of Progress
We have more technology, more leisure time but we are not happier in general