plant diversty

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plant diversty
2014-03-01 14:21:22
plants diversity biology
plant diversity,biology
plat diversity
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  1. photosynthetic organisms...
    • euglenozoan
    • diatoms
    • golden algea
    • brown algea
    • dineoflagellates 
    • red algea
    • green algea
  2. traits that are shared by land plants and various types of protists
    • eukaryotic cells
    • multicellular
    • cell walls of cellulose
    • photosynthesis
    • chloroplast
    • chlorophyll a and b
  3. traits that are shared between land plants and charophytes
    • rings of cellulose synthesizing proteins on plasma membrane 
    • structure of flagellated sperm 
    • formation of phargmoplast 
    • similairy in nucleus and chloroplast genes
    • sporopollenin
  4. phargomplast
    microtubules that from when a plant cell is dividing, between the nuclei, that first begin to separate then the cell wall begins to from
  5. sporopollenin
    (polymer) prevents drying in zygotes of charophytes and spores of plants
  6. gametophyte
    organisms that have alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes by mitosis. Haploid gametes unite to form sporophytes.
  7. sporophyte
    organisms that have alternation of generations, the multicellular diploid form that results from the union of gametes. The sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis that develops into gametophytes.Keywords: Plant, Algae, gametophytes
  8. embryophytes
    alternate name for land plants that refers their shared derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryosKeywords: Plant, Embryos
  9. sporangium
    a multicellular organ in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid cells developKeywords: meiosis, fungi, plant
  10. gametangium
    Multicellular plant structure in which gametes are formed. Female gametangia = archegonia. Male gametangia = antheridia.Keywords: Archegonia, Antheridia, Gametes
  11. apical meristems
    Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and buds of shoots. The dividing cells of an apical meristem enable the plant to grow in lengthKeywords: Growth
  12. cuticle
    a waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that prevents desiccation in terrestrial plants. 2) Exoskeleton of an arthropod. 3) Tough coat that covers body of a nematodeKeywords: Plants, Arthropods, Coat
  13. vascular tissue
    Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout plant body. A vascular plant is a plant with vascular tissue. All living plant species have this except liverworts, mosses, and hornworts Keywords: Plant species
  14. gymnosperms
    a vascular plant that bears naked seeds- seeds not enclosed in protective chambersKeywords: Seeds, Plants
  15. angiosperms
    a flowering plant that forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovaryKeywords: Ovary, Seeds
  16. gameteophore
    mature gamete-producing structure of a moss gametophyte
  17. homosporous
    a plant species that has a single kind of spore, which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte
  18. heterosporous
    plant species with two kinds of spores: microspores= develop into male gametophytes, and megaspores which develop into female gametophytesKeywords: Megaspores, Microspores, Gametophytes
  19. alternation of generations
    • not in charophytes 
    • multicellular gametophyte make haploid gametes through mitosis
    • these gametes combine to form a zygote and the zygote give rise to a diploid sporophyte
    • the diploid sporophyte makes spores through meiosis 
    • the spores are haploid
  20. extensive vascular system
    cells joined into tubes fro transport of water and nutrients
  21. bryophyetes
    • oldest lineage diverged 
    • 3 phyla: liverworts, hornworts, mosses
    • haploid gametophyte is dominant stage of life cycle
    • have protonemata, gametophore, rhizoids
    • most species have different sexes
    • sporophytes cannot live independantly from the gametophyte
  22. protonemata
    single-cell thick filaments that develop from spores
  23. rhizoids
    single cell thick filaments that anchor gametophyte to the ground
  24. Ferns
    • seedless vascular plants
    • flagellated sperm, need water to move
    • sporophytes are not dependent on gametophyte
    • dominant sporophyte life cycles
  25. moss life cycle
    • seedless nonvascular plant
    • homosporous
    • protenemata a formed from the spore
    • protonemata producesa bud
    • antheridia produce the sperm and they move through water to reach the archegonium where the eggs are created/stored
    • fertilization occurs, diploid organism will develop into a sporophyte
    • the zygote creates along stalk called seta, that emerges from the archegonium
    • it is dependant on the gametophyte
    • then the sporophyte develops a capsule (the sporangium) and creates spores.
  26. fern life cycle
    • seedless vascular plant
    • homosporous
    • use sexual reproduction
    • the sporangium produces spores that give rise to gametophytes
    • the gametophytes develop archegonium and antheridium 
    • the sperm form the antheridium fertilize the eggs from the archegonium and they produce a zygote
    • they zygote grows into a sporophyte that produce spores
  27. lycophyte
    • seedless vascular plant
    • mosses, epiphytes
  28. epiphytes
    plants that use other plants as a substrate but are not parasitic
  29. monoliphyta
    • ferns, horsetail 
    • megaphyll leaves
  30. adaptations that help seed plants live on land
    • seeds
    • reduced gametophyte
    • heterospory
    • pollen
    • ovules
  31. seeds
    • embryo with food supply surrounded by a protective coat.
    • embryo, endosperm, integument
  32. advantages of reduced gametophyte
    • protection from UV light, 
    • completely dependant on sporophyte parent
  33. pollen and the production of sperm
    • pollen grain developes from microspore
    • have tube cell, generative cell and sporopollenin
  34. ovule
    megaspornagium, megaspore and integument that protects the megasporangium
  35. life cycle of a pine
    • mature tree is a sporophyte
    • it creates both microspores (pollen cones) and megaspores (ovule cones)
    • the sperm is in the pollen grain fertilizes the the ovules 
    • it reaches the ovule and enters the ovule through the micropyle (pollination) then the sperms tube cells create the pollen tube to the egg, the generative splits and makes 2 sperms
    • while it is making the pollen tube, the megaspore goes through meiosis and and produces 4 haploid cell, but one survive to become the megaspore
    • then the sperm reaches the egg and fertilizes it, and the endosperm is formed
  36. gymnosperm diversity
    • cycadophyta
    • ginkophyta
    • coninferophyta
  37. phylum cycadophyta
    • have large cones palm-like leaves
    • flagellates sperm
    • most endangered gymnosperm species
  38. phylum ginkophyta
    • flagellated sperm
    • deciduous
    • tolerant of air pollution
  39. phylum coniferophyta
    • produce cones
    • evergreens
    • largest gymnosperm phylum
  40. flower parts and funtions
    • sepal-green part that covers the bud
    • petal-brightly colored to attract insects and such
    • stamen (filaments/stalk)-produces microspores which develop into pollen grains 
    • carpel (stigman, style, ovary)- femal parts, stigma is the sticky part the pollen attaces to 
    • if a flower as all parts it is called a complete flower
  41. fruit
    • fleshy cell wall is called pericarp
    • protects the seeds
  42. angiosperm development of female gametophyte
    • the megasporocyte goes through meiosis produces 4 haploid, 3 disintegrate and 1 becomes megaspore 
    • that surviving one goes through 3 mitotic divisions (8 cells)
    • 6 cells have nucleus
    • 3 cells are sanitpodas (disintegrate)
    • 2 cells are syngergies (disintegrate and release chemicals affecting growth of pollen tube)
    • (central cell becomes endosperm, i think)
  43. angiosperm development of male gametophyte
    • pollen grains released form anther and are carried to the sitgma by wind
    • each microsporangium contain microspororcyte that divide by meiosis and produce microspores
  44. double fertilization
    • when the central cell fuses with the other sperm and becomes the endosperm
    • this creates the food supply
    • after this, the ovule matures into seed
    • and it develops cotyledons and rudimentary roots
  45. parenchyma cells
    • thin and flexible
    • lack secondary cell walls
    • large central vacuole
    • can become other cells if needed 
    • perform most metabolic functions of plant
  46. collenchyma cells
    • elongated cells with thicker primary walls than parenchyma cells 
    • help support young plant growth 
    • mature cells living and flexible
  47. schlerenchyma
    • more rigid than collenchyma cells
    • has secondary wall that is produced after the cell has finished elongation, it is made of modified lignin
    • dead at maturity 
    • but the cell wall it produces are left to give the plant structure
  48. basal angiosperm
    amborella trichopoda
  49. magnolids
    • magnolias and black pepper
    • related to monocot and eudicots
  50. monocot characteristics
    • petals in multiples of 3
    • parallel veinage
    • fibrous root system
    • 1 cotyledon 
    • pollen grain with 1 opening
  51. eudicot characteristics
    • 2 cotlydeons 
    • veins are usually netlike
    • flower petals in multiples of 4 and 5
    • taproot system 
    • pollen gran with 2 openings
  52. root system
    • organ that anchors the plant to the soil
    • helps store carbs and other minerals
  53. primary root
    • emerges from the seed embryo
    • emerges when seed germinates 
    • branches to form lateral roots
  54. taproot system
    • have 1 main vertical root (Taproot)
    • prevents the plant from toppling
    • allows plant to grow taller
    • absorbs things through lateral roots
  55. fibrous root system
    • have thick mat of slender roots that spread below the soil surface
    • primary root dies early and no taproot is formed
    • each small root emerges from the stem and then small roots emerge from those and so on. (They form later roots)
    • uses root hairs
  56. root hairs
    increase surface area for absorption
  57. shoot system
    stems and leaves
  58. stems
    • organs with leaves and buds
    • function is to elongate and orient shoot to maximize photosynthesis 
    • elevate reproduction structures to allow for pollination and easier fruit disposal
    • alternating system of nodes and internodes
    • have axillary buds
    • apical buds
  59. apical bud
    growth that occurs at root tip
  60. axillary bud
    can form lateral branches, thorns and flowers
  61. leaf stalk
  62. simple leaf
    undivided blade
  63. compound leaf
    multiple leaflets
  64. 3 types of plant tissue
    • dermal 
    • vascular 
    • ground tissue
  65. dermal tissue
    • plants outer coating 
    • in nonwoody plants it is called the epidermis
    • in woody plants it is called the periderm
    • waxy cuticle 
    • the dermal tissue covering the roots help it absorb water
    • guard cells and trichomes
  66. trichomes
    help in defense and prevent water loss
  67. vascular tissue system (stele)
    • helps transport minerals, sugar and water through the plant
    • xylem, phloem,
  68. xylem
    transports water minerals, using trachieds and vessel elements
  69. trachieds and vessel elements (xylem)
    • dead at maturity
    • vessel elements are wider and thinner than trachieds  
    • they are connected to neighboring cells by perforation plates
  70. companion cells and sieve tube elements (phloem)
    • alive at maturity
    • sieve tube elements lack ribosomes, nucleues, vacuole and cytoskeleton, they rely on the companion cells to provide them with all the metabolic functions they need
    • connected by sieve plate 
    • companion cells do not conduct sugars
  71. indeterminate growth and determinate growth
    • when plants grow continuously (indeterminate)
    • when plants grow to a certain size then stop (determinate)
  72. apical and lateral meritsem
    • at tips of roots and shoots
    • allow plants to grow in length (primary growth, apical) 
    • allow for plants to get wider (secondary growth, lateral)
  73. 2 types of lateral meristems
    • vascular cambium- adds layers to vascular tissue like xylem or phloem
    • cork cambium- replaces epidermis with thicker periderm
  74. primary growth of roots
    • root cap which protects the apical meristem as it is pushed into the soil
    • zone of elongation, differentiation, division
  75. primary growth produces...
    epidermis, ground tissue and vascular tissue
  76. bryophytes
    • seedless nonvascular 
    • hornworts, liverworts, mosses
    • gametophyte dominant
    • protonemata(which is grown from the spore) that give rise to the bud and the gametophyte
    • rhizoids that anchor the plant
    • help retain N in soil
    • used as fuell (peat)
    • sporophyte is reliant on the gametophyte
    • alternation of generation 
    • gets nutrients through osmosis and diffusion
    • colonize bare soil
  77. lycohphytes and monilophyta
    • seedless vascular 
    • spike mosses, club mosses (lycophytes)
    • ferns and whispferns (monilophyta)
    • homosporous spore production
    • flagellated sperm
    • sporophyte dominant  
    • sporophyte is not dependant on the gametophyte 
    • they have phloem and xylem to help them grow taller
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