Chapter 13 - text

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Chapter 13 - text
2014-03-01 17:05:08

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  1. personality
    the unique characteristics that account for our enduring patters of inner experience and outward behaviour
  2. Psychodynamic perspective
    • freud
    • personality forms as a result of struggle between primal needs and social or moral restraints
    • conscious, preconscious unconscious mind
    • id, ego and super ego
    • must progress through psycosexual stages, if not they become fixated and linked to different personality characteristics
  3. freud: conscious mind
    the topmost level, composed of the thoughts and feelings that we are aware of at any given moment
  4. freud: preconscious
    contains thoughts, memories and ideas that can be easily brought into the conscious mind if attended to. Eg. your mothers birthday
  5. freud: unconscious
    • contains most of the content of our minds.
    • We are unaware of this content and can not become aware of it except under special circumstances. 
    • Particularly important to the development of personality
  6. Id
    • the personality element representing basic instinctual drives, such as those related to eating sleeping, sex, and comfort
    • present at birth
    • governed by the pleasure principle
    • "homer"
    • resides largely in the unconscious and is not readily available to consciousness
  7. ego
    • develops in childhood, as a result of learning before super ego
    • acts as a referee
    • governed by the reality principle
    • what is realistically possible
    • works in the conscious and unconscious mind
  8. super ego
    • ned flanders
    • formed last during childhood
    • develops as children observe the behaviours of those in their families and their culture
    • moral code, stable over life
    • governed by ego ideal
    • can be seen as out "conscience" and resides in both the conscious and unconscious mind
  9. Freud's psychosexual stages
    • stages in the development of personality; the stages - labelled oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital - are primarily influenced by sexuality and aggression
    • believed that they function as learning periods
    • if don't make it through a stage, become fixated
  10. what happens when a child is in the phallic stage
    • boys focus on their penis and girls on their lack of penis (penis envy)
    • boy begins to feel sexual attraction towards his mother and jealous rage towards her love interest (his father)
    • boy also fears his father will find out and cut off his penis (castration anxiety)
  11. neurosis
    an abnormal behaviour pattern caused by unresolved conflicts between the id, ego and sueprego
  12. defences mechanisms
    • freud
    • unconscious tactics employed by the ego to protect the individual from anxiety
  13. repression
    • keeping unpleasent memories or thoughts buried in the unconscious
    • eg. forgetting the details of a tragic event
  14. deniel
    refusing to recognize an unpleasant reality
  15. reaction formation
    • not acknowledging unacceptable impulses and over emphasizing their opposite
    • eg. overpraising a sibling's accomplishment even though you resent his/her success
  16. displacement
    diverting one's impulses to a more acceptable target
  17. sublimation
    channelling socially unacceptable impulses into acceptable activites
  18. regression
    reverting to immature ways of responding
  19. identification
    enhancing self-esteem by imagining or forming alliances with others
  20. intellectualization
    ignoring troubling emotional aspects by focusing on abstract ideas or thoughts
  21. evaluating freud's theory
    • can't be tested
    • lack of predictive power
    • small and select sample size
  22. alfred adler
    • other psychodynamic theories
    • was interested in how feelings of inferiority motivate behaviour
    • quest for superiority
    • individual psychology 
  23. carl jung
    • other psychodynamic theories
    • believed in the unconscious but added another level, the collective unconscious
    • two parts - the personal unconsious (formed from individuals experiences) and the collective unconscious (inherited memories shared by all humankind called archetypes)
    • analytical psychology
  24. archetypes
    • carl jung
    • shared memories which are reflected in symbols and images that appear in the art literature and religions of all culture
  25. karen horney
    • other psychodynamic theories
    • interested in basic anxiety (developes in children who experience extreme feelings of isolation and helplessness) and sets teh stage for later neuroses
    • believed culture played a more important role in development than traditional psychoanalytic theory thought
  26. Meyers-Briggs type indicator
    personality test based on carl jungs theory of personality types
  27. abraham maslow
    • humanisitc perspective
    • believed humans are basically good and want to fulfull our potential - self actualization theory
    • looked at healthy individuals instead of focusing on the sick (like freud)
  28. self actualization
    • abraham maslow
    • the need of humans to fulfill their full and special potential; the highest level of need in maslow's hiercy of needs
  29. characteristics of self actualized people
    • the ability to recognize the needs and desires of others
    • the willingness to respond to the uniqueness of people and situations rather than responding in mechanical or fixed ways
    • an emotionally deep connection with a few people
    • spontaneity and creativity
    • the ability to resist the urge to conform while sill responding to reality
  30. peak experiences
    • studied by csikszentminhalyi
    • moments in which people experience intense clarity of perception, feelings of joy and excitement and a suspended sense of time and reality
    • linked to the growing interest in positive psychology
  31. positive psychology
    an are of psychology focusing on positive experiences and healthy mental functioning
  32. carl rogers
    • the humanistic perspective
    • believed that human nature is fundamentally positive and that people strive for self-actualization
    • based around the self concept not hierarchy of needs
    • as children we need unconditional positive regard
    • Children form conditions of worth through development
    • developed client centred therapy

  33. conditions of worth
    • developed in childhood, a perception that they must meet certain standards in order to gain the love of their parents or other important figures
    • carl jung
  34. personality traits
    • tendencies to behave in certain ways that remain relatively constant across situations
    • describe our general disposition
  35. unconditional positive regard
    • carl rogers
    • acceptance without terms or conditions - from parents or other adults to develop healthy self-concepts
  36. fundamental attribution erre
    human's likelyhood to explain our own behaviour in situational terms and others' behaviour in terms of personality traits
  37. central traits : personality
    • 1.) people have innate tendencies to respond to situations in certain ways (traits)
    • 2.) these tendencies can be linked together to form habits (central traits)
    • 3.) such principles can be used to form the foundation of a scientifically testable thoery
  38. Hans Eysenck and Factor Analysis
    • used factor analysis for personality traits - more objective
    • identified traits that cluster together to form fundamental dimensions of personality, called superfactors
    • gathered date via questionnaires, found basic personality traits similar across many cultures
    • believed personality was biologically based
  39. Eysenck's Superfactors
    • a fundamental dimension of personality made up of a related cluster of personality traits
    • a continuum
    • 1.) extraversion
    • 2.) neuroticism
    • 3.) psychoticism
  40. The five factor model
    • identifies five major trait categories (ocean)
    • empirically derived trait theory
  41. psychoticism
    • part of eysenich's 3 superfactors
    • the degree to which a person is vulnerable to develping the serious disorders known as psychoses, in which contact with reality is lost in key ways
  42. how do more conscientious people benefit through life
    tend to live longer
  43. situationism
    • the notion that behaviour is governed primarily by the variables in a given situation rather than by internal traits
    • ex. skinner (believed personality was completely shaped by environmental factors, aka do things that have given us a positive outcome, stay away from bad (reinforcement))
  44. Interactionism
    a view emphasizing the relationship between a person's underlying personality traits and the reinforcing aspects of the situations in which they choose to put themselves
  45. social cognitive theory
    • albert bundua (introduced the concepts of modelling and self-efficacy)
    • interactionist theory
  46. reciprocal determinism
    • albert bundura's modelling and self efficacy influence personality through this process
    • personality is an interaction between internal mental events, behaviour and the external environment
    • is testable
  47. phrenology
    a method of assessing a person's mental and moral qualities by studying the shape of the person's skull
  48. cerebral hemisphere dominanace
    • may contribute to personality
    • right hemisphered dominance linked with more negative emotions and traits while left linked to positive emotions and traits
  49. neurotransmitter activity and personality
    • high dopamine has been linked to positive emotions high energy and lack of inhibition
    • low seritonin associated with depression, violent behaviour and impulsivity
  50. Hormone activity - personality
    • cortisol, stress hormone
    • children with inhibited temperaments tended to have higher cortisol levels
  51. categories of temperament (3)
    • 1. negative emotionality
    • 2. positive emotionality
    • 3. disinhibition versus constraint
  52. negative emotionality
    high levels people are thought to experience more negative emotions and see the world as distressing, whereas love  are relatively peaceful and have higher levels of satisfaction
  53. positive emotionality
    • a persons engagement with their environment
    • high scores are social individuals who lead active lives and exhibit enthusiasm
    • low scorers are shyer and have less energy and self condifence
  54. disinhibition versus constraint
    reflects how we regualte our various emotions
  55. disinhibition versus constraint
    • high disinhibition have difficulty controlling their emotional responses and tend to be impulsive, living for the moment.
    • people high in constraint live more careful and controlled lives
  56. sex deferences in personality
    • women tend to be better at assessing emotion in other people
    • men have higher levels of aggression
    • men are more open to sex in casual, uncommited relationships
  57. social role theory
    theory that gender role differences occur because boys and girls develop different behaviours and skills based largely on differences in gender role expectations
  58. biological factors in difference between personalities in the sexes
    • different degrees of hemispheric lateralization
    • males tend to be more functionally lateralized
    • females more integrated
  59. differences among cultural groups for personality
    • collectivist cultures are more likely to strive to help maintain social order and to exhibit humility in social interactions - tend to score higher on agreeableness - more likely to describe themselves in a social manner
    • individualistic cultures value independence and self achievement - tend to score higher on extraversion and openess - more likely to describe themselves using personality traits
    • when people move from a collectivist to individualistic culture (or vis versa) their personality and behavioural patters change
  60. socioeconomic status and impulsivity
    • poor kids and impulsivity where far more likely to engage in deliquent behaviours than those who displayed low levels
    • rich kid differences between impulsivity and behaviour were negligible.
  61. personality inventories
    • a paper and penicle questionnaire designed to asses various aspects of personality
    • provide a summary or profile of the various traits that comprise a personality
  62. minnesota multiphasic personality inventory 2
    • most favorite personality test
    • asses abnormal personality characteristics and inclinations
    • empirically derived
  63. neo
    • personality test
    • does not try and asses maladaptive aspects of personality
    • structured to evaluate 30 traits
  64. socially desirable responding
    • problem with self taken tests
    • individuals tailor their answers on personality inventories to try and create a good impression
  65. validity items
    type of question on a personality inventory that assesses the likelyhood that a respondent would purposely give an answer that was socially desirable rather than accurate
  66. projective tests
    a personality assessment device intended to tap a person's unconcious by presenting the person with an ambiguous stimulus and asking the person to interpret what the stimulus means