Bio 1215- Phylum Chordata

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CanuckGirl
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Bio 1215- Phylum Chordata
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2014-03-09 18:00:06
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chordate
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phylum chordata
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  1. what are the 4 characteristics of phylum chordata?
    • Notochord
    • dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    • pharyngeal slits
    • muscular, post-anal tail
  2. what is notochord? where is it found in chordates?
    • flexible rod b/w gut and nerve cord
    • in all chordate embryos, absent and transformed in adults
  3. In humans, what happens to our notochord when we become adults?
    becomes intervertebral discs
  4. what are pharyngeal slits? what is it's function?
    • openings from digestive tube to outside
    • for filter feeding or site for gas exchange  
  5. what are they 3 subphyla for chordate?
    • tunicates
    • lancelets
    • vertebrata
  6. what is an organism in the subphylum tunicates? What is their adult structure and how do they feed?
    • sea squirts
    • adult is like a filter-feeding bag within a bag
    • feed by having water filtered through a porous pharynx
  7. briefly describe the larvae in the subphylum tunicates.
    larvae are free-swimming and show all the chordate features
  8. what is one feature about the subphylum lancelets?
    chordate features persist in adults
  9. In the subphylum vertebrata, systematics based on the appearance of key innovations. what are they? (7)
    • obvious brain in an obvious head (craniates)
    • have vertebrae (vertebrates)
    • jaws
    • lungs of lung derivatives
    • 4 limbs (amphibians)
    • amniotic eggs (reptiles and birds)
    • milk (mammals)
  10. In the key innovations of vertebrata, the craniates have an obvious brain and head. what is this called and hold old are their fossils?
    • cephalization
    • fossils>500 million years old
  11. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata,  how do craniates have the brain enclosed?
    specialized brain enclosed in skulls (usually made of cartilage or bone)
  12. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, what kind of circulatory system do craniates have? briefly give 2 points on their structure.
    • closed circulatory system
    • blood has cells and hemoglobin
    • chambered heart (at least 2 chambers)
  13. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, how are nitrogenous wastes removed in craniates?
    kidneys filter the blood
  14. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, what is the most primitive craniate? describe their notochord, skull, mouth structure and how they feed.
    • hagfishes
    • notochord remains as cartilage rod
    • cartilage skull
    • tooth-like structures made of keratin
    • slime-producing scavengers
  15. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, describe 3 things about all vertebrates regarding their nerve cord, skeleton and sexes.
    • have a cartilage of bony protection for the nerve cord
    • have internal skeleton of cartilage or bone
    • most species have separate sexes
  16. describe a bone. (2)
    • special cells in a matrix of protein fibers and calcium phosphate
    • is alive and grows
  17. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, what is the most primitive vertebrate? where do larvae and adults live? describe their skeleton.
    • lampreys
    • larvae in live streams and adults live in lakes oceans (adults parasite)
  18. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, describe the "skeleton" of lampreys (vertebrates)
    • "skeleton"= only cartilage pipe around the notochord
    • cartilage pipe has extensions that partially enclose the nerve cord
  19. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, how did jaws evolve?
    evolved from gill supports
  20. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, what were the first jawed fish? Describe their tissue.
    • the heavily armoured placoderms
    • had mineralized bony tissue
  21. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, what animals are modern day examples of primitive jawed fishes? Give 4 main characteristics for both.
    • sharks and rays
    • characteristics:
    • well-developed jaws
    • paired fins
    • cartilage skeleton
    • mineralized teeth
  22. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, sharks are a modern day example of primitive jawed fishes. describe how the tails and fins help them swim fast.
    • tail for propulsion
    • dorsal fin stabilizes the shark
    • pectoral and pelvic fins give lift
  23. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, how do sharks have buoyancy? why is constant swimming for sharks important?
    • buoyancy due to the oil in liver and constant swimming
    • constant swimming is needed for gas exchange
  24. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, describe the visions of the sharks, how they detect vibrations and electrical fields.
    • vision is black and white, olfactory sense
    • lateral lines detect vibrations
    • pores near snout detect electrical fields
  25. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, describe the fertilization of sharks. (2)
    • internal fertilization via pelvic fin of male
    • some species lay eggs, some give birth to young
  26. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, rays are of the modern primitive jawed fishes. describe 3 main characteristics about them.
    • dorsa-ventrally flattened bottom dwellers
    • eat molluscs and crustaceans
    • tail may be whip-like and poisonous
  27. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, which animals were the first to evolve lungs?
    fishes
  28. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, how do fishes have buoyancy, describe their skeleton and skin.
    • buoyancy from swim bladder (modified lung?)
    • skeleton includes bone (CaPO3 in matrix)
    • skin covered with flattened, bony scales that's covered in mucus
  29. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, how do fishes perform gas exchange? how is this gas exchange structure protected?
    • gas exchange via 4-5 gills   
    • gills covered by movable operculum (protects gills)
    • can "breath" while stationary
  30. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, how do most fishes reproduce?
    most lay eggs and have external fertilization
  31. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, why do fishes have flexible fins?
    for better steering and propulsion
  32. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, what are the 3 groups of bony fishes?
    • ray-finned fishes (most successful)
    • lobe-finned fishes
  33. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, describe a main characteristic of ray-finned fishes. where did they evolve?
    • fins supported by flexible rays of bone
    • evolved in freshwater
  34. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, describe a characteristic of lobe-finned fishes and where did they evolve?
    • rod-shaped bones support muscular fins
    • arose in shallow water (many were lunged, aided my gills)
  35. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, which group of bony fishes gave rise to tetrapods?
    lobe-finned fishes
  36. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, what is the main characteristics of the class amphibian (tetrapods)? How to they reproduce? (2) where do the larvae and adult form live?
    • 4 legs
    • external fertilization
    • shell-less eggs laid in water or moist environment
    • immature stages live in water, adults often terrestrial
  37. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, compare tadpoles and adult frogs concerning body structure, gas exchange, how they feed, and how they hear.
    • Tadpoles:
    • long tail, no legs
    • gas exchange at gills
    • herbivores
    • lateral lines for hearing

    • Adult frog:
    • no tail; legs
    • skin and/or lungs
    • insectivores
    • ear drum for hearing
  38. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, amniotes have amniotic eggs. Describe the structure of them. (3)
    • shelled (slows drying)
    • fluid -filled
    • internal, membranous pouches
  39. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, amniotes have waterproof layer that is impermeable to gas. what is it?
    keratin scales
  40. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, describe amniotes fertilization, gas exchange & heart structure.
    • internal fertilization
    • lungs for gas exchange
    • 3-chambered heart
  41. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, how do amniotes regulate body temperature and how do they ventilate the lungs?
    • use behaviours to regulate body temperature
    • use rib cage to ventilate the lungs
  42. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, the amniotes have 2 main reptile groups, what are they?
    • one gave rise to lizards, snakes and extinct marine reptiles
    • other gave rise to crocodiles, turtles, dinosaurs, birds and pterosaurs
  43. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, when did dinosaurs go extinct?
    went extinct at end of cretaceous era
  44. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs are what type of amniotes?
    lizards
  45. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, amniotes included T-Rex which is what type of dinosaur? what evolved from this type?
    • T-Rex: a theropod dinosaur
    • birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs
  46. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, what was the early bird called?
    archeopteryx
  47. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, birds are a type of amniote. what 3 characteristics makes them amniotes?
    • amniotic egg
    • scales (on legs)
    • shells have (CaCO3)
  48. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, the uniqueness of the birds comes from many adaptations for flight. Name all 9.
    • light-weight bones
    • keratin feathers (came from scales)
    • light-weight keratin beak
    • reduced organ (one ovary)
    • endothermic (regulate temp. from inside)
    • 4-hambered heart
    • efficient lungs (one-way air flow)
    • good vision---> big brain
    • large flight muscles
  49. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, how do birds (amniotes) reproduce? how are the eggs kept warm?
    • internal fertilization (cloaca-cloaca transfer)
    • eggs must be warmed by brooding
  50. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, where have mammals descended from? briefly describe them.
    • descended from early reptiles
    • early mammals were small and many may have eaten insects
  51. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, what are the 7 features of mammals?
    • amniotes (embryo develops in uterus)
    • have hair
    • mammary glands
    • endothermic
    • 4-chambered heart
    • differentiated teeth
    • big brain
  52. In the key innovations of subphylum vertebrata, how do mammals reproduce and take care of young?
    • internal fertilization
    • embryo receives nutrients through placenta
    • long periods of parental care
  53. what are the 3 mammalian subclasses?
    • Monotremes
    • marsupials
    • eutherians
  54. what organisms are included in the subclass monotremes and what are their 2 distinct features?
    • platypus and echidna
    • lay reptile-like eggs
    • have mammary glands but no nipples
  55. what are some organisms in the subclass marsupials and which countries are they mostly seen in?
    • kangaroos, opossums, koalas
    • mostly confined to Australia and New guinea
  56. Describe the development of the subclass marsupials.
    • begin development with placenta, but born at undeveloped stage
    • finish development in pouch called marsupium
  57. who are the eutherians? Describe their development.
    • almost all mammals (outside Australia)
    • development complete in uterus, via placenta
  58. For the eutherians (mammal subclass), adaptive radiation occurred after?
    the cretaceous mass extinction
  59. There are many examples of __________________ between Marsupials and eutherians.
    convergent evolution
  60. When did primates first appear?
    about 65 million years ago
  61. what adaptations did primates have for living in trees?
    • shoulder/shoulder joints allows swinging and climbing
    • grasping hands and feet (nails not claws)
    • stereo vision (eyes at the front for depth perception)
  62. what are the 3 main groups of primates? Give 2 main features of each.
    • lemurs and friends: most primitive, mostly n Madagascar
    • anthropoids: appeared 45 mya, cat-sized and arboreal
  63. Anthropoids ( a main group of primates) can be divided into two groups: old world monkeys and new world monkeys. compare both.
    • New world monkeys: have prehensile tails and nostrils that open to the side
    • Old World Monkeys: lack a prehensile tail and their nostrils open downward
  64. Hominoids came from old world monkeys, what organisms do they include and what are 2 main characteristics about them?
    • include apes and humans
    • long arms, no tails
    • originally arboreal
  65. Ancestors of humans and _____________ diverged about____ million years ago
    • chimpanzees
    • 6-7
  66. Species on our branch are called _____________. Give 4 characteristics about them.
    • hominins
    • bipedal (walking on 2 legs)
    • bigger brains
    • reduce jaw bones
    • shorter digestive tract (suggests ancestors ate variety of foods)
  67. In hominins, _________ evolved first, ________evolved later.
    • bipedalism
    • big brains
  68. Describe which hominins this is:
    about 6-4 millions yrs ago
    bipedal on land; quadruped in trees
    omnivores in forests
    ardipithecus
  69. what hominin is this: evolved about 4-2 million yrs ago
    Australopithecus
  70. what hominins is this:
    bigger brains and tools by about 2.4 mya
    tools out of stone
    gave rise most likely to homo erectus
    Homo habilis
  71. what hominins is this: evolved about 2 mya
    extinct 200 000 years ago
    bigger brains, bigger tools
    hips adapted to long distance walking
    expanded through Africa and Asia
    Homo erectus
  72. What 3 groups did Homo erectus give rise too? Describe where they evolved.
    • Homo sapiens: us, about 200 000 years ago; Dry (Africa)
    • Homo neanderthalis: adapted to cold climate, bones much thicker, extinct; Ice Age (Europe)
    • Homo floresiensis: extinct; tropical island (Indonesia)

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