Research Methods Exam 2

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Research Methods Exam 2
2014-03-01 20:01:15

exam 2
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  1. 2 reasons you should care about ethics
    • respect for participants' rights
    • protect yourself legally
  2. 2 sources of info on ethics
    • apa statement
    • institutional review boards
  3. risk benefit rule
    benefits should outweigh risks
  4. 4 rules of ethics
    • informed consent
    • freedom from coercion
    • confidentiality
    • debriefing
  5. internal validity
    • extent to which a set of research findings provides compelling information about causality
    • low internal validity means not sure of cause and questionable findings
  6. John Stuart Mill's 3 principles
    • covariation
    • temporal sequence
    • eliminating confounds
  7. covariation
    • changes in one variable must correspond with changes in another variable
    • cause and effect correlate
  8. temporal sequence
    • changes in thefirst variable must precede the changes in the second
    • cause must come before effect
  9. eliminating confounds
    • must rule out other explanations
    • also known as "third variable problem"
  10. external validity
    • extent to which a set of research findings providesan accurate description of what typically happens in the real world
    • high generalizability means the study will apply to other people too
  11. internal validity vs. external validity
    • internal - accuracy
    • external - generalizability
  12. construct validity
    • are you measuring or manipulating what you want
    • good operational definitions lead to high construct validity
  13. 3 threats to construct validity
    • confounding variable
    • random error
    • poor measurement
  14. conceptual validity
    how well a hypothesis maps on to the broader theory that it was designed to test
  15. measurement
    assigning numbers or names to objects and their attributes
  16. 4 types of measurement
    • verbal
    • behavioral
    • behavioroid
    • physiological
  17. verbal measurement
    • verbal response
    • example: pain scale
  18. behavioral measurement
    • real behavior
    • example: avoiding someone
  19. behavioroid
    • participants report on their own behavior
    • example: condom use
  20. physiological measurement
    • biological processes
    • example: brain imaging
  21. indicators of theoretical constructs
    what we can observe
  22. operationalization of theoretical constructs
    finding good indicators of theoretical constructs
  23. 4 types of measurement scales
    • nominal 
    • ordinal
    • interval
    • ratio
  24. reliability
    consistency and repeatability of a study
  25. 3 types of reliability
    • inter-observer
    • internal consistency
    • temporal consistency
  26. inter-observer reliability
    • different people judge and agree
    • used to study behavior or products of behavior (writing sample)
  27. internal consistency reliability
    • multiple items are combined to create a score
    • used with self-report scales or observations
  28. temporal consistency reliability
    • used to assess something that doesn't change on a regular basis
    • test a group of people and then have them come back a second time to test them again
    • test-retest reliability: over the span of 2 weeks, do you get the same score?
  29. "more is better" rule of reliability
    • more items (indicators, observers, observations, and occasions) lead to better reliability 
    • less vulnerable to chance
  30. 3 construct validity of scales
    • predictive
    • convergent
    • discriminant
  31. predictive construct validity
    is the measure useful?
  32. convergent construct validity
    are we assessing what we want?
  33. discriminant construct validity
    are we assessing the wrong thing?
  34. reliability vs. validity
    • a study can be reliable but not necessarily valid
    • example: a broken scale consistently reads 5 lbs over but your weight is not 5 lbs over
  35. 2 challenges of self-report questions
    • judgement phase
    • response translation phase
  36. judgement phase
    participants determine what kind of question is being asked and form some initial response
  37. pilot testing
    practice studies designed to help researchers refine measures in the real study
  38. focus group
    small and well represented group of people
  39. open-ended questions
    allow participants to respond any way they like without a structured scale
  40. 4 ways to word questions well
    • KISS (informal language)
    • avoid negations and double negatives
    • avoid forced-choice items (double barreled)
    • avoid questions that do not yield variance
  41. anchors
    • adjectives that lend meaning to the numbers on the scale
    • 1 = not at all
    • 5 = extremely
  42. EGWA scale
    empirically grounded and well anchored
  43. 3 steps to designing questionnaires
    • step back and think
    • write lots of questions
    • analyze your scale and derive the best items
  44. absolute scales
    • participants report magnitude
    • how many cigarettes do you smoke a day?
  45. likert scale
    rating scale