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Specific biochemical substances used by the body for growth, development, activity, reproduction, lactaion, health maintenance, and recovery from illness or injury.
What is an essential nutrient?
either not synthesized in the body or are made in insufficient amounts.
WHAT IS BASAL METABOLISM?
The energy required to carry on the involuntary activities of the body at rest.
A BMI of ______ is underweight.
A BMI of ______ is overweight.
A BMI of ______ is obese, and ____ is extreme obesity.
30 or higher, 40 or higher
The six classes of nutrients and their GENERAL functions.
- Carbs, proteins, fats = supply energy
- Vitamins, minerals, water = regulate body processes
What are proteins important for?
formation of all body strutures, including genes, enzymes, muscle, bone matrix, skin, and blood.
Where is cholesterol especially abundant?
brain and nerve cells
What is cholesterol used for?
to sythesize bile acids and is a precursor of the steroid hormones and vitamin D.
Most vitamins are in the form of _______ which help facilitate thousands of chem rxns in the body.
Why are vitamins needed?
for the metabolism of macromolecules.
Minerals are INORGANIC elements found in all body fluids and tissues in the form of ______ or combined with _______.
- salts (ex-NaCl)
- organic compounds (ex - iron w/ hemoglobin)
Which macro minerals are needed by the body in amounts greather than 100 mg/day?
What is obesity?
- body wt of 20% or more above ideal or
- BMI of 30 or more
Synthesis of ______ declines with age and a level below _____ may be a reflection of aging rather than a nutritional risk factor.
______ measurements are used to determine body dimensions.
What is enteral nutrition?
administering nutrients directly into the stomach
What is parenteral nutrition?
providing nutrition via IV therapy
In what kind of pt may a nasointestinal tube (thru nose and into upper portion of sm intestine) be indicated?
- pt with increased risk for aspiration due to diminished gag reflex or
- slow gastric motility
What type of patients should not get NG tubes?
- those with a dysfunctional gag reflex,
- high risk of aspiration,
- gastric stasis,
- gastroesophageal reflux,
- nasal injuries,
- unable to have head of bed elevated during feedings