Comp. Politics Midterm

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  1. Government
    Entity exercising control, direction, regulation of a political unit (city, state, etc...)
  2. Sovereignty
    a status of legitimate government, a monopoly on coercive power. A uniform control and authority. The United States, no vigilante groups enforcing their own rules.
  3. Politics
    Collective process for deal with conflict (usually by a government).
  4. Social Contract Theory
    Hobbs Free men contract with each other to establish political community i.e. civil society through a social contract in which they all gain security in return for subjecting themselves to an absolute Sovereign, one man or an assembly of men.
  5. Authoritarian Regime
    Ruled by single leader or group of leaders. Doesn’t have democratic beliefs. Few civil liberties. E.g. Russia, China, a lot of place in Africa
  6. Anarchy (not ideology)
    State unrest. No legitimate government. Chaos. Failed states generally in anarchy.
  7. Charismatic Legitimacy
    right to rule based on personal virtue, heroism, sanctity or other extraordinary characteristic. Example: Obama, Hitler, McCain,
  8. Rational/Legal Legitimacy
    Right of leaders who are selected according to an accepted set of laws. It is believed that rational/legal distinguishes modern rule from it's predecessors.
  9. Traditional Legitimacy
    Right to rule based on society's long standing patterns and practices (divine right of kings)
  10. State
    compulsory political participation, monopoly of coercive power, and a recognized territories. A set of continual institutions that administer laws, etc.
  11. Nation
    group of people sharing perceived common identity and claiming a homeland. Palestine is a great example.
  12. Failed State
    No longer has sovereignty over all or parts of its territory. Afghanistan.
  13. Absolutism
    Monarch with absolute power. Power is invested in one ruler. Russian czars.
  14. Science
    a system of acquiring knowledge that uses observations and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomena. Example: political science has classifications, hierarchy, predictable variables and scientific methodology
  15. Rational Choice Theory
    Prisoner’s dilemma. Human’s are narrowly self interested. Political behavior that assumes humans are rational beings with self defined preferences and adequate knowledge and ability to pursue their agenda. Can be used to model social and economic predictions.
  16. Correlation
    Two variables can occur simultaneously but don’t have relatable outcome. Does not imply causation.
  17. Political Ideology
    A systematic set of belief about how political system should be structured. Imply means to an end.  Communism, socialism, etc…
  18. Fascism
    A militant political movement. Emphasizes state over the individuals. No spiritual or human values can exist outside of the state.
  19. Bourgeoisie
    Class that owns capital in a capitalist society. Marxism.
  20. Proletariat
    working class in a capitalist society. Marxism.
  21. Marxism
    Structuralist argument that says economic structures largely determine political behavior; the philosophical underpinning of communism.
  22. Vanguard Party
    Vladimir Lenin’s concept of a small party that claims legitimacy to rule based on its understanding of Marxist theory and its ability to represent the interests of the proletariat before they are a majority of the populace.
  23. Liberalism
    maximizing individual rights. limits to state power.
  24. Socialism
    Common ownership of goods and management. Anti-capitalist. Serving a purpose rather than profit.
  25. Social Democracy
    Combines liberal democracy with much greater provision of social rights of citizenship and typically greater public control of the economy
  26. Patrimonial System
    Top leaders mobilize political support by providing resources to their followers in exchange for political authority. A lot of African countries operate under this.
  27. Nationalism (Ideology)
    heightened loyalty to one’s country. Examples: China, US after 9/11,
  28. Modernizing Authoritarianism
    legitimacy through modernization. Example: China
  29. Simple Democracy
    direct democracy. People have power to vote on everything.
  30. Republican Democracy
    itizens elect representatives who they believe are capable to make decisions about government related policies. Example: America
  31. Aristocracy
    Rule by wealthy. Small ruling class
  32. Oligarchy
    Rule by few elites. Military, financial, inherited
  33. Theocracy
    Rule by religious authority. God is sovereign. Example: Iran, Vatican City
  34. Jihad
    struggle to improve oneself. Struggle to protect. Struggle to resist evil.
  35. Ijtihad
    independent reasoning to understand god. Application of word of god to more modern instances. Coffee, tobacco. Was believed that the denunciation lead to the stagnation of political evolution of islamic countries during the age of enlightenment.
  36. Plato's Republic
    The socratic dialogue of what justice is and how the state should be run. Should be run by philosopher king. Proto Fascist.
  37. Philosopher King
    Absolute ruler in plato’s republic believed to the wisest and most enlightened man. Separated from family and the outside world to become wise without influence. Pg 121 Tanzania
  38. Straw Man argument
    Misrepresentation of opponents argument. Oversimplifying to make it easy to attack.
  39. Elite
    Disproportionate amount of power of share and influence. Exampe: 1%
  40. Civil Society
    NGO that have voluntary membership outside of the government. Example: special interest groups, religions, etc…
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Comp. Politics Midterm
Midterm for Comparative Politics
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