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What is learning?
Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice
Who was Ivan Pavlov? What was his experiment?
- Russian physiologist
- Dog-bell experiment
What is classical conditioning?
- Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces a reflex
What are the four components of classical conditioning?
- Unconditioned response: An involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus
- Unconditioned stimulus: A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response. “unlearned” or “naturally occurring”
- Conditioned response: Learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus• “conditioned reflex”
- Conditioned stimulus: Stimulus that, with repetition, produces a learned reflex response b being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus. “learned”
What is acquisition?
- The repeated pairing of the CS and the UCS; the organism is in the process of acquiring learning
- Requirements for classical conditioning to occur: The CS must come before the UCS. The CS and UCS must come very close together in time—ideally, only several seconds apart. The neutral stimulus must be paired with the UCS several times, often many times, before the conditioning takes place
What are some of the conditions that must be met for classical conditioning to occur?
- Taste aversion
- Biological preparedness: The tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning.
What is stimulus generalization? Discrimination? Extinction? Spontaneous recovery?
- The CS is usually some stimulus that is distinctive or stands out from other competing stimuli
- Stimulus generalization: the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original CS
- Stimulus discrimination: the tendency not to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus
- Extinction: the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning)
- Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred
- Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior
What is a conditioned emotional response?
- Emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli
- Fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person
- CERs may lead to phobias—irrational fear responses
What are some of the theories of classical conditioning?
- Stimulus substitution: Original theory
- Occurs because the conditioned stimulus becomes a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together
- Cognitive perspective: Occurs because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus
What is operant conditioning?
- The learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses
- -Learning depends on what happens after the response: the consequences
- Thorndike’s law of effect
- -If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated
- -If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence it will generally not be repeated.
What is reinforcement?
- When the consequence of an event, behavior, etc. is pleasant: Increases the probability that the response will occur again
- Primary reinforce: Naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst or touch
- Secondary reinforce: Becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforce, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars
- Positive reinforcement: The reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus
- Negative reinforcement: The reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus
What is punishment? What are some of the problems with punishment?
- Any event or object that, when following a response , makes that response less likely to happen again
- Severe punishment may cause avoidance of the punisher instead of the behavior being punishedo Severe punishment may encourage lying to avoid punishment
- Severe punishment creates fear and anxiety
- Punishment by application: The punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus
- Punishment by removal: The punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus
What are some of the ways to make punishment more effective?
- Should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish
- Punishment should be consistent
- Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible, with reinforcement
What is shaping?
The reinforcement of simple steps that leads to a desired complex behavior
What is behavior modification?
- The use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior
- Token economy: Type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens
- Time-out: A mild form of punishment by removal in which a misbehaving animal child or adult is placed in a special area away from the attention of others
Who was Tolman?
- Rat experiment
- Trained 3 groups of rats to run the same maze
- Group 2: no reinforcement for completing the maze for the first 9 days, but did on the 10th
- Group 3 did not receive any reinforcement at any point during the experiment
- The rats in group 2 appear to have learned the maze but had not demonstrated this knowledge because there was no reason to do so
- Latent learning: Learning can occur without reinforcement and then later effect behavior
Who was Kohler?
- Worked at a primate research lab in the canaries During WWI
- Chimp studies
- Reaching a banana outside of the enclosure that was beyond arm reach
- Bananas that were too high to be grabbed and could be reached with a stick
- Insight: The sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem o come quickly
Who was seligman
- Dog experiment: Trying study escape and avoidance learning
- Learned helplessness: The tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past
What is observational learning?
- Learning a new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior
- Animals and humans both use this to learn
What are mirror neurons?
- Neurons in the frontal lobe that fire both when we perform an action and when we observe others doing the action
- These neurons may enable imitation and empathy
Who was Albert Bandura?
- A pioneer in the research of observational learning
- Bobo Doll Experiments: Indicated that individuals learn through observing otherso Learning/performance distinction: Learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior. Learning occurred just by watching the models actions
- Children learned whether model was rewarded or punished
- Imitated actions without prompting when model was rewarded
- Imitated actions only with prompting when model was punished
- Observational Learning
What are the four elements of observational learning?
- Attention: To learn anything through observation, the learner must first pay attention to the model
- Memory: The learner must also be able to retain the memory of what was done
- Imitation: The learner must be capable of reproducing, or imitating, the actions of the model
- Motivation: Finally, the learner must have the desire to perform the action
What is social learning theory?
- Bandura’s theory for which observational learning is the central feature
- People mainly learn social behaviors trough observation and cognitive processing of information rather through direct experience.