chapter 13 - notes

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jarrettmoore
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chapter 13 - notes
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2014-03-01 21:14:17
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psycology
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chapter 13 class notes
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  1. personality
    A set of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive tendencies that people display over time and across situations and that distinguish individuals from each other.
  2. The psychodynamic perspective
    • Freud and psychoanalytic theory
    • - Other psychodynamic theories
    • - Share the same view: personality and behaviour are shaped by interacting, or dynamic, underlying forces
  3. psychoanalysis
    • freud, based on clinical practices
    • based on discovering ones unconscious
    • one of the first to state that the parent-child relationship influences how people feel about themselves and how they handle intimacy as adults
  4. psychodynamic perspective
    • - Conflict, Anxiety and Defense
    • - Id, Ego and Superego always in
    • - Id, Ego and Superego always in conflict with on another conflict with on another
    • - Such conflicts may produce anxiety
    • - Such conflicts may produce anxiety that reaches consciousness that reaches consciousness 
  5. conscious levels of psycoanalysis
    • conscious - normal awareness
    • preconscious level - easily brought to conciouslness
    • unconscious level - hidden thoughts and desires
  6. the id
    • unconscious level
    • present at birth
    • home to sexual and aggressive drive
    • governed by the pleasure principle; avoids pain
    • "home simpson"
  7. the super ego
    • - Preconscious and unconscious levels
    • - Develops in childhood
    • - We internalize, or unconsciously adopt, the values and norms of others
    • - Home to morality and conscience; leads us to feel guilt and anxiety
    • - Governed by the ego ideal

    (“Ned Flanders”...)
  8. The Ego
    • rational thoughts
    • - Conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels
    • - Develops in childhood (before superego)
    • - Acts as a referee between id and superego (Must satisfy the drives of the id while complying with the constraints of the environment)
    • - Governed by the reality principle (logical, rational, realistic part of the personality) 
  9. Freud: Personality Development
    • During each stage, the id’s pleasure-seeking tendencies focus on one area of the body
    • - Primarily influenced by sexuality and aggression that cause internal conflict
    • - Named after specific erogenous zones, or pleasure-producing areas of the body
    • - We must pass through psychosexual stages successfully.
    • - Each stage focuses on how we receive pleasure.
    • - Failure to pass through a stage may lead to fixation.
    • - In times of stress, we regress to that stage.
  10. Psychosexual stage
    • 1. Oral: 0–18 months. Pleasure derived through oral satisfaction - Sucking on a bottle and weaning
    • 2.Anal: 18 months - 3 years. Area of pleasure is focused on the anal region - Going to the bathroom and toilet training
    • 3. Phallic: 3 - 6 years. Seek genital stimulation, attraction to opposite-sex parent - Oedipus complex, castration anxiety, penis envy
    • 4. Latency: 6 years – puberty. Repression of sexual impulses and identification with same- sex parent
    • 5. Genital: Puberty – adult. At puberty, latency gives way to experiencing sexual attraction to opposite sex and establishing mature relationships 
  11. defence mechanisms
    • - Distress caused by the anxiety motivates people to rid themselves of the anxiety people to rid themselves of the anxiety
    • - Humans use defense mechanisms that
    • - Humans use defense mechanisms that protect us from emotions such as anxiety protect us from emotions such as anxiety 
  12. projection
    attributing your own undesirable or unacceptable thoughts, motives, or feelings to another
  13. Critiques of Freud
    • - Not scientific
    • - Hard to test Critiques of Freud
    • - Too broad
    • - Claims are hard to falsify
    • - Based on limited sample -
    • Based on limited sample
    • - Female patients
    • - Upper-class
    • - Nineteenth-century Vienna 
  14. Freud's Followers
    • Alfred Adler: - Social, not sexual, needs and conscious thoughts are critical in the development of personality - Strive for superiority - Inferiority complex  
    • Carl Jung: - Personal and Collective unconscious - Archetypes: shared memories -
    • Karen Horney: - Basic anxiety - Culture has a role in development - Not penis- but privilege envy
  15. Carl Jung's Analytical Perspective
    • Proposed “the collective unconscious”
    • - Latent memory traces inherited from our ancestral past
    • - Common to all humans
    • - Archetypes are emotionally shared ideas and images with much meaning and symbolism; e.g. the concept of mother
  16. Adler's individual Psychology
    • - Believed that humans are constantly striving for superiority
    • - Emphasized social interactions
    • - Strong focus on birth order affecting one’s personality
  17. carl rogers
    • - Humans are fundamentally positive and strive for self-actualization
    • - Self-concept: consistent pattern of self
    • - perception describing how we see ourselves; can be used to characterize an individual
    • - Unconditional positive regard: acceptance without terms or conditions
    • - Client-centred therapy: put aside conditions of worth developed during childhood 
  18. Personality: Traits or Situations
    • - Trait view - We think and behave consistently across situations.
    • - Situationist view - Our thoughts and behaviors change with the situation. 
    • - Interactionist view - Both traits and situations affect thoughts and behaviors.
  19. The trait perspective
    • Personality traits: tendencies to behave in certain ways that remain relatively constant across situations.
    • - Trait theories: - Gordon Allport: first trait theorist, based work on case studies
    • - Hans Eysenck: used factor analysis to create superfactors
  20. superfactors
    • fundamental dimension of personality made up of a related cluster of personality traits
    • - Neuroticism: degree to which one experiences negative emotions - Low: calm, even-tempered - High: worrying, temperamental
    • - Extraversion: degree to which one is outgoing - Introvert: thoughtful, reliable, passive - Extravert: impulsive, sociable, assertive
    • - Psychoticism: degree to which one is vulnerable to psychoses, or loss of touch with reality
  21. Evaluating Trait Theories: Strengths
    • - Traits become increasingly stable across the adult years
    • - Relatively stable across many situations and cultures
    • - Traits predict other personal attributes and often other behaviours
    • - There appears to be a strong genetic contribution to personality traits
  22. Evaluating Trait Theories: critisims
    • - Oversimplify personality
    • - Portray personality as fixed rather than changing
  23. Situationism
    • behaviour is governed by situation rather than internal traits
    • - Skinner: personality is consistent response tendencies (renforcement)
  24. Interactionism
    • emphasizes the relationship between a person’s underlying personality traits and the reinforcing aspects of the situations in which people choose to put themselves
    • - Bandura: reciprocal determinism
    • - Reciprocal relationship exists among environment, behaviour, and internal mental events
    • - Self-efficacy: people’s personal beliefs about their ability to achieve the goals they pursue
    • - Advantage: these variables are testable
    • - Disposition-situation relationships often sh
  25. Measuring personality: Inventories
    • - Questionnaires (paper or computer)
    • - Produce a personality profile - Produce a personality profile
    • - Easy to score and statistically analyze
    • - Social desirability
  26. projective tests
    • People are asked to describe or tell a story about an ambiguous stimulus
    • - It is assumed that individuals project their personality into ambiguous stimuli
    • - However, scientific studies reveal low scoring reliability and dubious validity
  27. What happens in the brain: Amygdala
    • - Emotionality, motivation, processing negative stimuli (e.g., fear and avoidance)
    • - Inhibited children may have an easily activated amygdala in unfamiliar situations, which activates a lot of fear and shyness.
  28. What happens in the brain: Hemisphere dominance
    • - People with right hemisphere dominance experience increased sadness, inhibition, withdrawal
    • - People with left hemisphere dominance have more positive emotions and traits, such as extraversion
    • - This difference may appear at a very early age
  29. Personality and Neurotransmitter Activity
    • - Dopamine: - High levels = positive emotions, high energy - Low levels = anxiety, inhibition, low energy
    • - Serotonin: - Low levels = depression, violence, impulsivity
    • - Cortisol: - High levels = inhibition
  30. Personality: Gender - how we differ
    • Gender differences:
    • - Similarities outnumber differences
    • - Context, culture, social roles, hemispheric lateralization, sex hormones play a role
    • - Incorrect conclusions cause stereotypes
    • - Women assess others’ emotions more accurately than men
    • - Gilligan: - Men are higher on individuality and autonomy
    • - Women are higher on social and connectedness traits
    • - Hyde:
    • - There are differences in levels of aggression, motor performance, and sexuality 
  31. Personality and birth order (3 children)
    • First born or only child
    • - conscientious
    • - neurotic
    • Middle born
    • - less identified with family
    • Later Born
    • - agreeable
    • - extraverted
    • - open to experience
  32. Biologically based Personality Theories - Eysenck's, cloninger's, zuckerman's
    • Eysenck’s three-factor model:
    • - Extraversion
    • - Neuroticism
    • - Psychoticism  
    • Cloninger’s theory:
    • - Reward dependence
    • - Harm avoidance
    • - Novelty seeking
    • - Persistence
    • Zuckerman’s theory:
    • - Sociability
    • - Neuroticism-anxiety
    • - Impulsive sensation seeking
    • - Activity
    • - Aggression-hostility
  33. Learning and cognitive elements of personality
    • Learning: conditioning, social learning
    • Sociocognitive: expectanties - locus of contorl, self-efficacy
  34. Personality and culture
    Collectivism - Focus on the needs of the group - Chinese, African, Latin American, Arab 

    cultures consider the needs of the group over that of the individual - Score higher on measures of agreeableness - Value harmony in interpersonal relationships - Describe self as part of a group - “I am a student at the university”

    • Individualism - Focus on needs of the individual - United States, Canada, Great Britain,
    •  value individual achievement and independence - Score higher on measures of extraversion and openness - Value privacy - Describe self using a personal trait - “I am independent”
  35. Personality Disorders
    • Personality disorder: an inflexible pattern of inner experience and outward behaviour that causes distress or difficulty with daily functioning  
    • Antisocial personality disorder: extreme disregard for others - Impulsive, egocentric, reckless, possibly criminal - More males - 1.7%–3.7% of the Canadian population - Superficial charm, irritable, aggressive 
    • Borderline personality disorder: severe mood and self- concept instability, high levels of volatility - Emotion dysregulation - Engage in impulsive, dangerous activities (e.g., self-mutilation, risky sexual behaviour, substance abuse) 

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