Encoding: Conversion of information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems
Storage: Holding onto information for some period of time
Retrieval: Getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used
What are some of the models of memory?
o Information-processing model: Model of memory. Assumes that the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory—in a series of stages
Levels of processing model: Information that is more deeply processed according to meaning, rather than sound or physical characteristics—will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time
Parallel distributed processing
What is sensory memory? Iconic memory? Eidetic memory? Echoic memory? What are the limits of each?
Sensory memory: First stage of memory; information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems
Iconic memory: visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second Capacity: everything that can be seen
Eidetic memory: the (rare) ability to access a visual memory for thirty seconds or more
Echoic memory: the brief memory of something a person has just heard
Capacity: limited to what can be heard at any one moment and smaller than the capacity of iconic memory
Duration: lasts longer that iconic; about two to four seconds
What is short-term memory?
Information is held for brief periods of time while being used
Selective attention: The ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input
Digit-span test: Memory test in which a series of numbers is read and the subjects then recall the numbers in order
• Magical number =7+/- 2
• In actuality: 4 +/- 1
Chunking: Bits of information are combined into meaningful units, or chunks
Rehearsal: Maintenance rehearsal
What is working memory? How do we test it?
Ability to hold and manipulate information in a short-term storage system
Size judgment span task
What is long-term memory?
The system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently
Elaborative rehearsal: A method of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way.
• What is procedural memory?
Memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses
These memories are not conscious, but their existence is implied because they affect conscious behavior
Aka: nondeclaritive and implicit memoryo Anterior grade amnesia: The loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward; the inability to form new long term memories. Usually does not affect procedural LTM
Tower of Hanoi
What is declarative memory?
Type of long term memory containing information that is conscious and known (memory for facts)
Aka explicit memories
Semantic: Type of declarative memory containing general knowledge, such as knowledge of language and information learned in formal education
Episodic: Type of declarative memory containing personal
What is amnesia and what are the different types of amnesia?
Retrograde amnesia: loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards; loss of memory for the past
Anterograde amnesia: loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward; the inability to form new long term memories
What is Alzheimer’s disease?
Primarily causes anterograde amnesia, although retrograde amnesia can also occur as the disease progresses
How do we retrieve memories?
Retrieval failure: Recall has failed (at least temporarily). Tips of the tongue phenomenon. Recognition
Retrieval cue: A stimulus for rememberingo Encoding specificityo State-dependent learningo Context Effect
What is recall?
Information to be retrieved must be “pulled” from memory with very few external cues
What is retrieval failure?
Recall has failed (at least temporarily)
Tips of the tongue phenomenon
What is Serial position effect?
Tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body of information
Primacy effect: Remember information at the beginning better
Recency effect: Remember information at the end better
What is recognition?
The ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact
False positive: Error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory
Eyewitness testimony: Not always reliable. What people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of the event
How do we encode memories?
Automatic encoding: Tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long term memory with little or no effortful encoding
Flashbulb memories: Type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it
Encoding specificity: Memory of information is improved if the related information (such as surroundings of physiological state) from when the memory is first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved
State dependent learning: Memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to recall while in a similar state
Context effect: In the same physical context when you encode and recall
What are some of the things that can go wrong with our memories?
Hindsight bias: Tendency to falsely believe that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event
Misinformation effect: The tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself
Why do we forget?
Curve of forgetting: Forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually. Distributed practice produces better retrieval than massed practice
Encoding failure: Failure to process information into memory
Proactive and retroactive interference: Memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information
Retroactive interference: Memory retrieval problems that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information