Anesthetic Induction Specific Techniques
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4 Complications of Intravenous Catherization
- 1. Hemorrhage
- 2. SQ infiltration (hematoma)
- 3. Thromboembolism
- 4. Phlebitis
List over the needle gauges and locations by species:
Species: Location: Size:
- Cat cephalic/femoral/jugular 19/20g
- Dog cephalic/Lat saphenous/jugular 16-19g
- Lg animal Jugular 12-16gx5.5"
This is a type of catheter that is temporary and used short term
Procedures like abdominal surgery, castration and mammary gland resection require what type of positioning?
Procedures involving eye, ear, thorax, lumbar fenestrations, the kidney or spleen and orthopedics require what type of positioning?
A laminectomy of the head or tail require what type of positioning?
A procedure involving the anal region, vagina or perineum require what type of positioning?
Modified Ventral Recumbency
Reasons for Endo-tracheal tube placement
- 1. Positive Pressure Ventilation
- 2. Inflated cuff to prevent aspiration
- 3. Reduced anatomic dead space to administer inhalants
- 4. Maintain an open airway (collapsed trachea/elongated uvula)
- 5. Reduced exposure of personnel to waste gases
What is the correct length of an endotracheal tube?
From the tip of the nose to the thoracic inlet
What 2 things can happen if the endotracheal tube is too long?
- 1. Can advance too far in and supply only one bronchus
- 2. Can stick out too far from the nose increasing the mechanical dead space
3 things that mark the success/failure of intubation:
- Careful restraint
- Adequate lighting for epiglottis visualization
- Proper positioning (sternal recumbency)
Checking proper placement of Endotracheal tube
- 1. Revisualize larynx and confirm correct location
- 2. Watch for expansion/contraction of rebreathing bag
- 3. Air movement from the tube connector upon exhalation can be detected
- 4. Fogging/condensation in tube upon exhalation
- 5. Palpate neck (only 1 firm structure=good)
- 6. Ability to vocalize
- 7. Forceful cough when tube is placed
What type of breeds should the endotracheal tube be left in place until the animal can stand on its own?
This is a reflex closure of the glottis in response to contact with any object or substance
What is applied to the epiglottis to allow for relaxation of the structure, mainly used in cats due to laryngospasms?
What may also be used to hold open the mouth to facilitate intubation?
A mouth gag (3 sizes)
When should the cuff be checked again due to muscle relaxation of trachea?
15-30 minutes under general anesthesia
Complications associated with intubation
- 1. May stimulate the vagus nerve causing increased parasympathetic tone
- 2. Physical trauma when intubating
- 3. Overinflation of the cuff causing pressure necrosis
- 4. Obstruction by blood/mucus/saliva or by kinking/twisting
- 5. If not removed at the proper time - aspiration of the distal end into the airway
- 6. Can spread infectious disease if not properly cleaned
American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists
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