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  1. What word should be avoided when describing pathology
  2. Define Lesion
    • the structural/functional change in body constituents induced by a pathologic process
    • the consequence of an injury
    • any departure from normal form and function, whether it is clinically apparent or not
  3. Elements of a description: Tissue
    • #1. Tissue: ID organ or structure
    • #2 ID location within the organ
    • #3 Number/proportion. How many abnormal areas are present (give a %)
    • #4 Consistency (texture): soft, firm (scirrhous), fluctuant, friable, malleable, cystic, homogenous
    • #5 Color (use primary colors)
    • #5 Distribution: focal, multifocal, focally-extensive (confluent or coalescing) , diffuse, military (entire organ involved)
    • #6 Shape: spherical, ovoid, oblong, fusiform, linear, symmetrical etc... or shape modifiers
    • #7 Size: metric length, weight, proportion of organ involved (%), proportion or ratio of change from normal. 3 sided
    • #8 Pattern: reticulated (fishing net), mottled, punctuate, haemorrhages (petechial, ecchymosis, suffusive or extensive)
  4. Shape modifiers
    • polypoid (jelly fish blob)
    • papillary
    • pedunculated
    • umbilicate
    • stellate
    • raised
    • depressed
  5. Haemorrhage Pattern
    • Petechia(e) - plural, small foci 1-2mm
    • ecchymosis - look like paint brush strokes, 2-3 cm
    • Suffusive or extensive - large area
  6. Other descriptors: odor, lumen of tubular organs, surface, necrosis
    • Odor: significant and distinctive odours i.e. sweet, foul, sulphur-like
    • lumen of tubular organs: patent, dilated, narrowed, obstructed, obliterated (occluded), branched
    • surface: smooth, rough, nodular, shiny, dull, ulcerated, eroded, eburnated (polished), elevated, depressed, glistening etcc
    • necrosis: Caseous, coagulative, liquefactive etc...
  7. In the morphological description also include:
    -an estimate of age/duration of a lesion and
    -an estimate of severity
    • age/duration of a lesion:
    •  -per acute (quick death ie from hemorrhage)
    •  -acute: hrs -days
    •  -sub-acute: days
    •  -chronic: days to weeks or longer
    • severity
    •  -mild, moderate, severe
  8. "opathy"
    disease in
  9. "itis"
    inflammation in
  10. "osis"
    degenerative change in
  11. "oma"
    neoplasia in
  12. Four changes seen in tissues
    • lesion: any departure from normal form and function, whether it is clinically apparent or not
    • normal anatomic variation: A normal structure that varies in appearance between animals of the same species
    • artifact: a tissue change that occurs some time after death or biopsy. Occurs due to autolysis, putrefaction, tissue fixation, histologic processing, staining etc...
    • Non-significant lesion: A lesion that has no known clinical relevance to disease
    • *when describing pathology ignore the last 3
  13. Some normal anatomic structures or normal anatomic variation we need to know
    • -salivary glands
    • -pale, "veiny" kidneys in cats
    • -mucoid horse urine (high Calcium carbonate concentration and abundant mucus gives horse urine its appearance)
    • -dogs often have splenic capsular defects
    • Splenic siderotic plaques in dogs (plaque like folci  present on capsular surface and along border of spleen may occur as a result of healing from prev trauma and hemorrhage)
    • -Umbilical structures present in neonates: umbilical arteries (along bladder), umbilical vein (to liver), urachus on bladder
    • -Intestinal lymphoid follicles in young animals (peyers patches in ileum, or dog cecum)
    • -synovial fossae (in all soecies) - areas of cartilage in articular surfaces may have shallow depressions
    • -melanin/melanosis in ruminants: black pigment in lung, or uturus, can occur anywhere
    • -Ossa cordis in cattle (valve opening supported by boney/cartilaginous substance)
    • -glossal fimbriae in neonates: tongue margins of a newborn puppy or pig appear hairy, aid in suckling
    • -frilly livers in camelids
    • -gall bladder anomalies in cats - i.e. cats sometimes have bi-lobed g.bs
  14. Artifacts: changes that happen during and after death or biopsy
    • -post mortem bloat (emphysema)
    • -post mortem rectal or vaginal prolapse
    • -feed material in nasal cavity, mouth, and airways (can be caused by head down transportation) ***IF there is no mucosal inflammation associated with the feed material, then it was not there before the animal died
    • -tracheopbronchial foam (caused by elastic recoil of the lungs forcing air and serum into the airways after death - mixes the two to produce foam) NOTE: pulmonary edema can also make foam so it needs to be interpreted in association with other findings
    • -LivOr mortis (hypostatic congestion): red to purple staining of the skin on which the pig was lying when it died
    • -autolysis (post death bacterial self digestion)
    • -Imbibition of Hb (Hb has leaked out of autolysed RBC- area looks more pink) 
    • -pericardial, endocardial and mycocardial hemorrhage (common in lrg animals, no significance. as animal dies the capillary beds shut down and the heart continues to contract forcefully against increased resistance causing hemorrhage)
    • -post mortem blood clot -pale to red, EASILY removed and do NOT adhere to vessel walls (this distinguishes them from antemortem thrombosis)  
    • -barbiturate salts: seen in heart from intrathoracic or intracardial injections
    • -barbiturate spleens (splenic smooth muscle relaxes allowing it to fill with blood)
    • -ruminal mucosal sloughing (normal for it to appear red)
    • -post mortem gastric rupture (common in equine stomachs, pm gas accumulation)
    • -post mortem intussusception (intestines telescope on each other, normal color) -- if it happens before death its red/black
    • -mucosal tiger striping (common in intestine, stomach, bladder)
  15. Non-significant lesions: that had no effect on the animals
    • -hepatic capsular fibrosis in horses (diaphragmatic surface of horse liver often has fibrous plaque or tags)
    • -osseous metaplasia
    • -valvular cysts in ruminants: valvular hematocyst (dark blood filled cysts, can regress within a few months of birth) , valvular lymphocyst (lymph filled cyst)
    • -hemomelasma Ilei in horses (dark brown to red plaques on the serosal surface of the horse ileum)
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