Biology Exam #2

Card Set Information

Author:
TereaStewart
ID:
264589
Filename:
Biology Exam #2
Updated:
2014-03-02 21:33:13
Tags:
Intro Bio
Folders:
2014 2nd semester
Description:
Chapters 32,33,34,51
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user TereaStewart on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Nerve Crest
    Group of embryonic cells near the dorsal margins of the closing neural tube.
  2. New adaptations are usually modifications of?
    Example?
    • Pre-existing genes and structures
    • Ex: Paired fins and jaws
  3. Paired fins permits?
    Increased accuracy in maneuverability
  4. Hinged jaws permits?
    Gripping and slicing of food items
  5. Who were...Earliest Gnathostome Vertebrates?
    Extinct placoderms
  6. Placoderm ancestor...given rise to?
    Modern fishes
  7. Jaws are? 
    Other gill slits were?
    • Modifications of skeletal rods supporting anterior gill slits
    • Modifications for respiratory
  8. Devonian Period?
    Time?
    Age of?
    • 360-400 mya
    • Age of fishes
  9. Subphylum Urochordata are?
    • Tunicates
    • Salps
    • Sea squirts
  10. Subphylum Cephalochordata are?
    Lancelets
  11. Oviparity
    Mother lays external fertilized eggs
  12. Ovoviviparity
    Fertilized eggs develop internally-no food or nutriends given to child-just growing

    "Live Birth"(no maternal support)
  13. Viviparity
    Maternal nutrition & live birth
  14. 3 "subclasses: of fish... What are they?
    • 1. Subclass Actinopterygii
    • 2.Subclass Actinistia
    • 3.Subclass Dipnoi
  15. Members of this phylum exhibit secondary...derived radial symmetry?
    Echinodermata
  16. Class Amphibia are (animals)?
    • Frogs
    • Salamanders
    • Caecilians
  17. Protostome with chitinous exoskeleton?
    Arthropoda
  18. Class Amphibia are?
    1st terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods)
  19. What's the only other successful animal colonizer of land?
    Early amphibians
  20. What was selective pressure for the amphibians?
    Climate cycles of the Devonian
  21. Amphibians, adaptive radiation: Why?
    • Lack of competition
    • Abundant food
    • Minimal predation
  22. Carboniferous Period called?
    "Age of the Amphibians"
  23. Amphibians remain tied to water through?
    Their physiology & meramorphosis
  24. 3 extant orders of Amphibia?
    • Order Urodela
    • Order Anura
    • Order Apoda
  25. Order Urodela
    Animal?
    Facts about?
    • ("tailed ones") salamanders
    • Mostly Northern Hemisphere
    • Largely temperate in distribution
  26. Order Anura
    Animal?
    Facts about?
    • ("tail-less ones") frogs & toads
    • More specialized than urodelans
    • Many adaptations for survival
  27. Order Apoda
    Animal?
    Facts about?
    • ("legless ones") caecilians
    • Nearly blind, burrowers
    • All tropical
  28. Major Evolutionary Breakthrough?
    Amniotic Egg
  29. Amniotic Egg Permits...
    Full terrestrial existence
  30. Shelled eggs and membranes permits...
    • Retention of water
    • Waste storage
    • Gas exchange
    • Nutrient transfer
    • Physical protection
  31. Examples of amniotes
    • Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Mammals
  32. Birds
    Derived?
    Closest living relative?
    • "Dinosaurs" 
    • Crocodilians
  33. 3 orders of Reptilia...
    • Order Squamata
    • Order Crocodilia
    • Order Chelonia
  34. Order Squamata are...
    Lizards and Snakes
  35. Order Crocodilia are...
    Crocodiles and Alligators
  36. Order Chelonia (testudines) are...
    Turtles and Tortoises
  37. In what taxon did flight first evolve?
    Insects
  38. Feathers are...
    Modified scales (keratin) with multiple functions.
  39. Flight permits exploitations (4)...
    • Was aerial reconnaissance
    • Access to nutritious food
    • Excape
    • Migration
  40. Class Mammalia...
    1st Appearance?
    During early Jurassic (~200 mya)
  41. What extinction opened many niches for class Mammalia?
    Dinosaurs
  42. 3 Major lineages of Mammalia that emerged during Mesozoic
    • 1. Monotremes
    • 2.Marsupials
    • 3.Eutherians
  43. Dorsal hollow nerve cord?
    Developmental infolding of an ectodermal plate
  44. Phylum Chordata is divided into 3 subphylas...
    What are they?
    • 1. Subphylum Urochordata
    • 2. Subphylum Cephalochordata
    • 3. Subphylum Vertebrata
  45. Sister group to chordates?
    Phylum Echinodermata
  46. Synapomorphies
    Recent shared derived traits
  47. Phyla Chordata have 4 synapomorphies... What are they?
    • 1. Notochord
    • 2. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    • 3. Pharyngeal slits
    • 4. Muscular post-anal tail
  48. Deuterostome embryonic cleavage difference
    • Eight-cell stage
    • Radial and Indeterminate
    • Grow on top of each other 
    • Can have identical twins
  49. Protostome embryonic cleavage difference
    • Eight-cell stage
    • Sprial and determinate
    • Grow spirally
  50. Deuterostome blastopore fate
    • anus develops from blastopore
  51. Protostome blastopore fate
    • Mouth develops from blastopore
  52. Archenteron
    Primitive gut
  53. Deuterstomes
    Eucoelom forms by outpocketing of the archenteron (enterocoelom)
  54. Protostomes
    Eucoelom forms by splitting of mesoderm (schizocoelom)
  55. 2 types of Eucoeloms
    • 1.Protostomes
    • 2.Deuterostomes
  56. Eucoelomates divide into 2 clades based on..
    • Formation of eucoelom
    • Fate of blastopore
    •    Type of cleavage
  57. Eucoelom
    Body cavity is completely lined with mesoderm
  58. Psuedocoelom
    Body cavity is NOT completely lined with mesoderm
  59. 2 types of coeloms
    • 1.Psuedocoelom
    • 2.Eucoelom
  60. Characteristics of coeloms
    • Permits longer size
    • Organ growth
    • And greater complexity
    • Cushion suspended organs
    •    Actashydrostatic skeletons
  61. Coeloms
    Body cavities
  62. Triploblastic
    • Endoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Ectoderm
  63. Diploblastic
    • Endoderm
    • Ectoderm
  64. Characteristics of animals that have Bilateral Symmetry
    • Dorsal, ventral, anterior, posterior
    • Cephalization
    • Clustering of sense organs, ganglial fusion
    • Directional locomotion, avoidance, food-getting
    • Most animals : Advantageous
  65. Characteristics of animals that have Radial Symmetry
    • Meet environment from all sides
    • Oral vs. aboral surface
    • Sessile or planktonic
  66. Radiata/Bilateral Split
    • Of the remaining animal phyla...
    • Cnidarians show primitive radial symmetry
    • Other phyla are primitively bilaterally symmetrical
  67. Parazoa/Eumetazoa Split
    Phylum Porifera lack true tissues

  68. True Tissues
    An aggregation of similarly specialized cells united in performance of particular function.
  69. 4 branching points on Animalia
    • 1. Parazoa/Eumetazoa Split
    • 2. Radiata/Bilateria Split
    • 3. Acoelomate/Coelomate Split
    • 4. Protostome/Deuterostome Split
  70. Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny
    Theory that stages in organism's embryonic development correspond to stages of its evolutionary history.
  71. Cladistics
    Produces testable hypothesis of genealogical relationships only from recent shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies)
  72. Phenetics
    Employs all measurable similarities and differences in phenotypic characteristics without consideration of convergence
  73. Names of 2 schools of Phylogeny
    • 1.Phenetics
    • 2.Cladistics
  74. Taxon
    Category of classification
  75. What is Phylogeny?
    The evolutionary history of a species or group of species.
  76. Systematics
    The study of the diversity of life (includes taxonomy & phylogeny)
  77. What are Animals?
    Multicellular, hererotrophic, eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers
  78. Animals...(Characteristics)
    • Lack cell walls
    • Structural proteins (e.g. collagen) hold bodies together
    • Unique→ nervous and muscle tissues
    • Most with sexual reproduction
    • Diploid stage usually dominant
    • Zygote undergoes cleavage→ Blastula→ gastrula embryonic germ layers
    • Only animals have HOX genes that regulate development of body form
  79. What does HOX genes do?
    Control the development of different parts
  80. How is phylogeny determined?
    • By assigning a set of characteristics derived from multiple sources
    • Comparative anatomy
    • Comparative embryology
    • Comparative biochemistry
    • Comparative molecular biology
  81. Vertebrae phylogeny derived from...
    Mitochrondrial sequences
  82. Who is Ernst Haeckel?
    Years?
    • He made the Biogenic Law
    • 1834-1919
  83. The animal kingdom is...
    Monophyletic
  84. Kingdom Animalia
    • Monophyletic
    • Other words, all animal phyla share common ancestor
    • Ancestor→Precambrian

    There are over 30 animal phyla
  85. Kingdom Animalia may evolved from...
    A colonial flagellated protistan ancestor (choanoflagellate)
  86. Endoderm forms during...
    Gastrulation via inward growth

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview