Ferns words

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Ferns words
2014-03-02 02:53:07

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  1. Vascular plants originated
    Silurian Period, 450 mya
  2. earliest vascular plants
    • rhyniophytes
    • zosterophyllophytes
    • trimerophytes
  3. fancy word for vascular plants
  4. vascular plant apomorphies
    • lignified secondary cell walls, with pits, in some cells
    • sclerenchyma tissue
    • tracheary elements (xylem)
    • sieve elements (phloem)
    • endodermis
    • independent, long-lived sporophyte generation
  5. vascular plants synapomorphies except fossils
    • sporophytic leaves associated with a stem to comprise a shoot system
    • roots
  6. rhiniophyta
    • seedless
    • simple, dichotomously branched stems
    • no true roots or leaves
    • round or elongate terminal sporangia
    • homosporous
  7. cooksonia
    • oldest known vascular plant
    • round sporangia
  8. rhynia
    • second land plant
    • dichotomously branched
    • cuticle
    • photosynthetic
    • stomata
  9. zosterophyllophyta
    • seedless
    • simple dichotomously branched stems
    • no true roots or leaves
    • round or kidney-shaped lateral sporangia borne on short stalks
    • homosporous
    • probable ancestors of lycophytes
  10. Trimerophyta
    • seedless
    • complex, dichotomously branched stems
    • no true roots or leaves
    • elongate leteral sporangia borne on short stalks
    • homosporous
    • evolved from rhyniophytes
    • ancestor of ferns and possibly horsetail
  11. pteridophytes
    • extant seedless vascular plants
    • carboniferous period
  12. Lycopodiophyta
    • endarch protoxylem of roots
    • exarch protoxylem of stems
    • lycophyll (microphyll) leaf type
  13. endarch protoxylem
    xylem matures from inside to outside
  14. exarch protoxylem of stems
    xylem matures from outside to inside
  15. lycophyll (microphyll)
    • small leaf that possesses only one single strand of vascular tissue
    • usually associated with stems that have protosteles
    • leaf gaps not produced
  16. Lycopodiaceae common names
    club moss, ground pine, running cedar
  17. Lycopodiaceae
    • above ground stems are dichotomously branched
    • rhizomes with adventitious roots
    • sporangia in sporophyll
    • sporophylls arranged in strobilus
    • homosporous
  18. rhizomes
    below ground stems
  19. adventitious roots
    didn't come directly from embryo
  20. Lycopodium
    • used in Christmas wreaths
    • dry spores used as flash powder and condom lubricants
  21. Selaginellaceae
    • above ground stems are dichotomously branched
    • rhizomes with adventitious roots
    • leaves possess a ligule
    • microsporangia in microsporophylls
    • megasporangia in megasporophylls
    • strobilus
    • heterosporous
  22. heterosporous
    two types of spores (micro and mega)
  23. Isoetaceae
    • quillwort
    • belowground stems are short, erect, and cormlike, adventitious roots
    • leaves are long and quill-like, each have a ligule
    • microsporangia and megasporangia are sunken in the bases of leaves
    • heterosporous
  24. Euphyllophytes
    • true leaves
    • sister group of lycophytes
    • remaining vascular plants
    • exarch protoxylem of roots
    • euphyll (megaphyll) leaf type
  25. Euphyll/megaphyll leaf type
    large leaf that usually possesses several strands of vascular tissue as well as a leaf gap
  26. monilophytes
    • ferns
    • mesarch protoxylem of stems
    • most members possess a stem vasculature known as a siphonolostele
  27. steles
    • vascular cylandar
    • protostele
    • siphonostele
    • dictyostele
    • eustele
    • atactostele
  28. protostele
    • simplest 
    • solid cylinder of vascular tissue in which the phloem either surrounds the zylem or is interspersed within it
    • found in most roots
  29. siphonostele
    • pith surrounded by vascular tissue
    • phloem found only outside the zylem
    • or on both sides
  30. dictyostele
    system of strands of vascular tissue around a pith
  31. eustele
    • system of strands of vascular tissue around a pith
    • found in seed plants
  32. atactostele
    • vascular tissue scattered throughout the pith
    • seed plants
  33. Ophioglossales
    • fronds are dimorphic with a sterile segment and a fertile segment
    • eusporangium
  34. Eusporangium
    • large sporangium with wall comprising more than one cell layer
    • formed from more than one epidermal cell
    • no annulus
  35. Ophioglossales and Psilotales
    • roots unbranched
    • root hairs absent
    • gametophyte subterranean, mycorrhizal
  36. Ophioglossaceae
    • adder's tongue, grape fern
    • sporangia in an upright fertile region or spike
    • homosporous
  37. species with most chromosomes (621)
  38. Psilotales
    • stems dichotomously branched
    • enations
    • lack true roots (probably lost)
    • absorptive rhizoids arise from rhizome
    • sporangia in groups of 3 (synangia)
    • homosporous
  39. entations
    An outgrowth on the surface of an organ.
  40. synangia
    sporangia arranged in groups of three
  41. Psilotum
    • whisk fern
    • found in warmer parts of SE US
  42. Equisetales
    • hoursetails, scouring rushes
    • homosporous
    • spores possess chloroplasts
    • stems conspicuously joined, ribbed, often hollow, unbranched or with whorls of branches
    • leaves greatly reduced to a whorl of scales forming a sheath at the nodes
    • strobili terminal, sporangia attached to sporangiophores
    • spores with four elaters
    • rough silica stems used for cleaning
  43. elaters
    coil and uncoil in response to changes in humidity
  44. Calamites
    • equisetophyte that took form of a large tree during carboniferous.
    • much of our coal comes from the remains of this plant
  45. marattiales
    • large pinnate or bipinnate fronds with circinate vernation
    • eusporangiate
    • polycyclic siphonostle
  46. eusporangiate
    having each sporangium developing from a group of cells, rather than a single cell, and with no specialized dispersal of spores.
  47. circinate vernation
    • unrolling of the frond during development
    • produces fiddlehead
  48. Polypodiales
    • leptosporangium
    • sporangia usually  grouped into sori which may be indusiate or exindusiate
    • false indusia present in some groups
    • sporangia possess an annulus whihc helps with spore dispersal
  49. leptosporangium
    • small sporangium with annulus
    • formed from one epidermal cell
  50. annulus
    single row of specialized cells on the outer rim of a fernsporangium that serves in spore dispersal
  51. sori
    clusters of sporangia
  52. false indusia
    edge of leaf folds and covers sori
  53. Polypodiaceae
    • creeping rhizomes covered in scales
    • leaves often simple though usually lobed
    • sporangia forming a mound-like sorus
    • exindusiate
  54. Osmundaceae
    • royal fern, cinnamon fern, interrupted fern
    • leaves pinnately compound, dimorphic
    • fertile pinnae differentiated from sterile pinnae
    • sporangia large
  55. Schizaeaceae
    • climbing fern
    • vines and grass-like tufted plants
    • leaves dimorphic, some produce sporangia, some don't
  56. Pteridaceae
    • maidenhair fern
    • pinnae dichotomously veined
    • sori along veins or along the reflexed margins of the pinnae (false indusia)
    • adiantum
  57. Dennstaedtiaceae
    • bracken fern, hayscented fern
    • creeping rhizome, large divided leaves
    • sori along leaf margin or on back of leaf
  58. pteridium
    • bracken fern
    • marginal sori covered by false indusia
  59. Aspleniaceae
    • spleenwort
    • sori round or elongate
    • indusia kidney-shaped or linear
    • spores surrounded by wrinkled or winged sheath-like covering
  60. Dryopteridaceae
    • wood fern
    • sori on the veins or at the vein tips
  61. Onoclea
    sori completely enclosed by leaf material
  62. Marsileaceae
    • water clover
    • aquatic
    • stolons produce the leaves
    • each leaf has two leaflets
    • sporocarps produced
    • heterosporous
    • megasporangium has 1 megaspore
    • each sori has micro and megasporangia
  63. stolons
    above ground rhizome
  64. sporocarp
    more elaborate structure formed from an entire leaf whose development and form is greatly modified
  65. Salvineaceae
    • floating aquatics
    • leaves in whorls of three, two floating, two simple
    • one leaf is very divided and dangling, resembling a root
    • sporocarps produced
  66. azollaceae
    • floating aquatic
    • leaves in two rows, scale like, and overlapping
    • harbor cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae (nitrogen fixation)
    • sporocarps formed