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appendix /əˈpɛndɪks/ n.
a small bag of tissue that is attached to the large intestine. In humans, the appendix has no clear function
- He had to have his appendix out (= removed).
intestine /ɪnˈtɛstən/ n.
a long tube in the body between the stomach and the anus. Food passes from the stomach to the small intestine and from there to the large intestine.
anus /ˈeɪnəs/ n.
- the opening in a person's bottom through which solid waste leaves the body
- anal /ˈeɪnl/ a.肛門的
an illness in which your appendix becomes infected and has to be removed in a medical operation 闌尾炎
tonsillitis /ˌtɒnsɪˈlaɪtɪs/ n.
an illness in which your tonsils become infected,swollen, and painful 扁桃腺炎
swollen /ˈswəʊlən/ a.
- an area of your body that is swollen has increased in size as a result of an injury or an illness
- My stomach is swollen.胃脹脹的
hepatitis /ˌhɛpəˈtaɪt̮əs/ n.
a serious disease of the liver. There are three main forms:hepatitis A (the least serious, caused by infected food), hepatitis B, and hepatitis C (both very serious and caused by infected blood). 肝炎
- someone who is infected has a disease that canbe spread from one person to an other 傳染的
asthma /ˈæzmə/ n.
- a medical condition of the chest that makes breathing difficult
- a severe asthma attack 嚴重的氣喘發作
severe /səˈvɪr/ a.
extremely bad or serious
ulcer /ˈʌlsər/ n.
- a sore area on the inside of an organ in yourbody or on the surface of an
- organ which is painful and may bleed or produce a poisonous substance 潰瘍
- a stomach ulcer
poison /ˈpɔɪz(ə)n/ n.
a substance that can kill you or make you ill if you eat, drink, or breathe it. 毒
arthritis /ɑrˈθraɪtɪs/ n.
a medical condition affecting your joints (=the place where two bones meet) making them very swollen and painful
migraine /ˈmaɪɡreɪn/ n.
a very severe type of headache that often makes a person feel sick and have difficulty in seeing 偏頭痛
typhoid /ˈtaɪfɔɪd/ n.
- a serious infectious disease that causes fever, red spots on the chest, and severe pain in the bowels, and sometimes causes death 傷寒症
- a typhoid epidemic 傷寒疫情
bowel /ˈbaʊəl/ n.
the tube along which food passes after it has been through the stomach, especially the end where waste is collected before it is passed out of the body 腸
(medical)to empty/move your bowels (= to pass solid waste out of the body)
bowel cancer/cancer of the bowel
epidemic /ˌɛpəˈdɛmɪk/ n.
a large number of cases of a particular disease happening at the same time in a particular community
- an epidemic of measles 麻疹的流行
- the outbreak of a flu epidemic 流感疫情的爆發
malaria /məˈlɛriə/ n.
- a disease that causes fever and shivering (= shaking of the body) caused by the bite of some types of mosquitoes
- malarial patients/regions瘧疾患者/地區
shiver /ˈʃɪvər/ v.
(of a person) to shake slightly because you are cold, frightened, excited, etc.
Don't stand outside shivering—come inside and get warm!
swelling /ˈswɛlɪŋ/ n.
- the condition of being larger or rounder than normal (= of being swollen )
- Use ice to reduce the swelling.用冰來消腫
the tired and confused feeling that you can get after flying a very long distance, especially because of the difference in time between the place you left and the place you arrived in 時差
I'm suffering from jet lag but I'll feel better after a good night's sleep.
- a swelling on the surface of the skin that is filled with liquid and is caused, for example, by rubbing or burning
- These shoes gave me blisters on my heels.這雙鞋讓我腳跟起水泡
the action of rubbing part of the body摩擦
She gave her knee a quick rub.
splinter /ˈsplɪntər/ n.
a small, thin, sharp piece of wood, metal, glass, etc. that has broken off a larger piece splinters of glass
=shard /ʃɑrd/ n. a piece of broken glass, metal, etc. shards of glass
diarrhoea /ˌdaɪəˈriə/ n.
an illness in which waste matter is emptied from the bowels much more frequently than normal, and in liquid form 腹瀉
- Symptoms include diarrhoea and vomiting.
an illness that affects the nose, eyes, and throat and is caused by pollen from plants that is breathed in from the air 花粉症
pollen /ˈpɑlən/ n.
a powder produced by flowers. It is carried by thewind or insects to other flowers so that they canproduce new seeds.
[not before noun] (of a person) tired or slightly sick, especially from working hard
someone who is run-down is tired and not healthy
You look a bit run-down.
block something up
- to completely fill a hole or an opening and so prevent anything from passing through it 堵住塞住One door had been blocked up.
- My nose is blocked up.
a white powder that is mixed with water and becomes very hard when it dries, used especially for making copies of statues or holding broken bones in place 石膏
a thin piece of cloth or plastic that is sticky on one side, and that you put on your skin to cover a cut. The American word Bend-Aid.護創膠布（商標名)a type of plaster used for covering a cut on your skin
a substance that is spread onto walls and ceilings to form a hard smooth surface 灰泥(建築用)
dehydrate /diˈhaɪdreɪt/ v.
to remove the water from something, especially food, in order to preserve it
Drink lots of water to avoid becoming dehydrated.
nasal /ˈneɪzl/ a.
connected with the nose
a nasal spray 鼻噴劑
passage /ˈpæsɪdʒ/ n.
- long narrow way =corridor/ˈkɑrəˌdɔr/
- a long narrow area with walls on either side that connects one room or place with another a secret underground passage
- in the body
- a tube in the body through which air, liquid, etc. passes
- blocked nasal passages阻塞鼻道
osteopath /ˈɑstiəˌpæθ/ n.
a person whose job involves treating some diseases and physical problems by pressing and moving the bones and muscles 整骨醫生
chiropractor /ˈkaɪrəˌpræktər n.
a person whose job involves treating some diseases and physical problems by pressing and moving the bones in a person's spine or joints 【醫】脊骨神經醫師
tweezers /ˈtwizərz/ n.
- a small tool with two long, thin parts joined together at one end, used for picking up very small things or for pulling out hairs
- She was plucking her eyebrows with tweezers.
to pull a hair from your face, head, or bodyusing your nails or a pair of tweezers
menstrual /ˈmenstruəl/ a.
- relating to a woman's periods
- menstrual pain
- menstrual cycle:
- the repeated process in which a woman's womb prepares for pregnancy. It ends in a period if she does not get pregnant. The menstrual cycle usually lasts about a month.
malaise /məˈleɪz/ n.
- a general feeling of being sick, unhappy, or not satisfied, without signs of any particular problem不舒服
constipation /ˌkɑnstəˈpeɪʃn/ n.
the condition of being being constipated
constipated /ˈkɑnstəˌpeɪt̮əd/ a.
- unable to get rid of waste material from the bowels easily
- You should eat more fiber and fruit if you are constipated.
cavity /ˈkævət̮i/ n.
a hole in a tooth, caused by decay
I have no cavities (=no holes in my teeth).
prescription /prɪˈskrɪpʃn/ n.
an official piece of paper on which a doctor writes the type of medicine you should have, and that enables you to get it from a pharmacy
The doctor gave me a prescription for antibiotics.
pharmacy /ˈfɑrməsi/ n.
- a store, or part of one, that sells medicines and drugs drugstore n.
- a store that sells medicines and also other types of goods, for example cosmetics
antibiotic /ˌæntibaɪˈɒtɪk/ n.
a substance, for example penicillin, that can destroy or prevent the growth of bacteria, and cure infections
effective antibiotic treatment有效的抗生素治療
The stroke left him partly paralyzed.
- a sudden serious illness when a blood vessel (= tube) in the brain bursts or is blocked, which can cause death or the loss of the ability to move or to speak clearly
paralyze /ˈpærəˌlaɪz/ n.
to make someone unable to feel or move all or part of their body
The accident left him paralyzed from the waist down.
measles /ˈmizlz/ n.
an infectious disease, especially of children, that causes a fever and small red spots that cover the whole body
bronchial /ˈbrɑŋkiəl/ a.
- of or affecting the two main branches of the windpipe (called bronchial tubes) leading to the lungs bronchial pneumonia 支氣管肺炎bronchial asthma 支氣管哮喘
bronchitis /brɑŋˈkaɪt̮əs/ n.
- an illness that affects the bronchial tubes leading to the lungs
- He was suffering from chronic bronchitis.他患有慢性支氣管炎
chronic /ˈkrɑnɪk/ a.
(especially of a disease) lasting for a long time; difficult to cure or get rid of
the country's chronic unemployment problem 該國的長期失業問題
osteoarthritis /ˌɑstioʊɑrˈθraɪt̮əs/ n.
a disease that causes painful swelling and permanent damage in the joints of the body, especially the hips, knees, and thumbs 骨關節炎
rheumatoid arthritis /ˌrumətɔɪd ɑrˈθraɪt̮əs/ n.
a disease that gets worse over a period of time and causes painful swelling and permanent damage in the joints of the body, especially the fingers, wrists, feet, and ankles 類風濕性關節炎
appetite /ˈæpəˌtaɪt/ n.
physical desire for food
Don't eat too many nuts—you'll spoil your appetite 影響你的食慾(= will no longer be hungry at the proper time to eat).
itchy /ˈɪtʃi/ a.
having or producing an itch on the skin
I feel itchy all over. 我感覺全身發癢。
an itchy nose/rash
to have an uncomfortable feeling on your skin that makes you want to scratch
This sweater really itches.
vomit /ˈvɑmət/ v.=throw up=be sick
to bring food from the stomach back out through the mouth
The smell made her want to vomit.
allergy /ˈælərdʒi/ n.
a medical condition that causes you to react badly or feel sick when you eat or touch a particular substance
I have an allergy to peanuts. 我對花生過敏
upset someone's stomach=upset tummy
to make someone feel sick after they have eaten or drunk something
gastritis /ɡæˈstraɪt̮əs/ n.
an illness in which the inside of the stomach becomes swollen and painful 胃炎
a serious disease, especially affecting older people, that prevents the brain from functioning normally and causes loss of memory, loss of ability to speak clearly, etc.
amnesia /æmˈniʒə/ n.
amnesiac /æmˈniʒiˌæk/ n.
- a medical condition in which someone partly or completely loses their memory
- This new discovery helps amnesiacs keep their memory.
anorexia /ˌænəˈrɛksiə/ n.
an emotional disorder, especially affecting young women, in which there is an abnormal fear of being fat, causing the person to stop eating, leading to dangerous weight loss
disorder /dɪsˈɔrdər/ n.
a messy state; a lack of order or organization混亂
bulimia /bʊˈlimiə/ n.
an emotional disorder in which a person repeatedly eats too much and then forces him- or herself to vomit
concussion /kənˈkʌʃn/ n.
a temporary loss of consciousness caused by a blow to the head; the effects of a severe blow to the head such as confusion and temporary loss of physical and mental abilities 腦震盪
temporary /ˈtɛmpəˌrɛri/ a.
- lasting or intended to last or be used only for a short time; not permanent
- I'm looking for some temporary work.我在尋找一些臨時的工作。
cramp n.= charley horse
a sudden pain that you get when the muscles in a particular part of your body contract, usually caused by cold or too much exercise 抽筋
- Ow! I just got a charley horse in my leg.
- I have a cramp in my stomach.
- cramps: severe pain in the stomach
dengue /ˈdɛŋɡi/ n.=dengue fever, breakbone fever
a disease caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes , that is found in tropical areas and causes fever and severe pain in the joints
coming from, found in or typical of the tropics
one of the two imaginary lines 兩個假想線drawn around the world 23° 26′ north (the Tropic of Cancer)北回歸線 or south (the Tropic of Capricorn) 南迴歸線of the equator赤道
equator /ɪˈkweɪt̮ər/ n.
- an imaginary line around the earth at an equal distance from the North and South Poles環繞地球的假想線在距北極和南極的距離相等
- The island is twenty degrees south of the equator. 冰島是赤道以南20度。
diabetes /ˌdaɪəˈbit̮iz/ n.
a serious medical condition in which your bodydoes not produce enough insulin to reduce theamount of sugar in the blood身體不能產生足夠的胰島素來降低血糖量
insulin /ˈɪnsələn/ n.
a chemical substance produced in the body that controls the amount of sugar in the blood 胰島素
insomnia /ɪnˈsɑmniə/ n.
the condition of being unable to sleep
to suffer from insomnia
smallpox /ˈsmɔlpɑks/ n.
a serious infectious disease (now extremely rare) that causes fever, leaves permanent marks on the skin, and often causes death 天花
a disease that mainly affects children in which the neck becomes swollen and painful 腮腺炎
a disease, especially of children, that causes a slight fever and many spots on the skin水痘
to catch/get/have the chickenpox
cholera /ˈkɑlərə/ n.
a disease caught from infected water that causes severe diarrhea and vomiting , and often causes death 霍亂
dementia /dɪˈmɛnʃə/ n.
a serious mental disorder caused by brain disease or injury that affects the ability to think, remember, and behave normally癡呆
- senile/ˈsinaɪl/ dementia : a serious mental disorder in old people that causes loss of memory, loss of control of the body, etc. 老人癡呆症
senile /ˈsinaɪl/ a.
behaving in a confused or strange way, and unable to remember things, because you are old
- I think she's going senile. 我認為她已經開始衰老
epilepsy /ˈɛpəˌlɛpsi/ n.
a disorder of the nervous system that causes a person to become unconscious suddenly, often with violent movements of the body 癲癇
- epileptic /ˌɛpəˈlɛptɪk/ n.
- Is she an epileptic?
gallstone /ˈɡɔlstoʊn/ n.
a hard painful mass that can form in the gall bladder 膽結石
a large amount of a substance that does not have a definite shape or form
an organ attached to the liver in which bile is stored 膽囊
the greenish-brown liquid with a bitter, unpleasant taste that is produced by the liver to help the body to deal with the fats we eat, and that can come into your mouth when you vomit with an empty stomach 膽汁
myopia /maɪˈoʊpiə/ n.
the inability to see things clearly when they are far away
able to see things clearly only if they are very close to you
not able to see things that are close to you clearly
She's farsighted and needs glasses to read.
presbyopia /ˌprɛzbiˈoʊpiə/ n.
the condition, that is usually found in older people, when someone is not able to see clearly objects that are close 老花眼
dyspepsia /dɪsˈpɛpsiə/ n.=indigestion
pain caused by difficulty in digesting food
the condition of having painful red skin after spending too much time in the sun
suntan /ˈsʌntæn/ n. = tan
- if a person or their skin tans or is tanned, they become brown as a result of spending time in the sun
- Where did you go to get that suntan? 曬黑/棕色
- My skin tans really easily.
an extra or unusual sound heard during a heartbeat 心臟雜音
malnutrition /ˌmælnuˈtrɪʃn/ n.
a poor condition of health caused by a lack of food or a lack of the right type of food
- the process by which living things receive the food necessary for them to grow and be healthy
- advice on diet and nutrition 飲食和營養諮詢
inadequate /ɪnˈædəkwət/ a.
- not enough; not good enough
- We are trying to provide basic education with inadequate resources.
cholesterol /kəˈlɛstəˌrɔl/ n.
a substance found in blood, fat, and most tissues of the body. Too much cholesterol can cause heart disease.
- a box of tissues 一盒衛生紙
- a collection of cells that form the different parts of humans, animals, and plants
- muscle/brain/nerve, etc. tissue肌肉/腦/神經組織等
- someone who is picky only likes specific things and is not easily pleased特別喜歡唯一的東西，難以取悅
- a picky eater
osteoporosis /ˌɑstioʊpərˈoʊsəs/ n.=brittle bone disease
a medical condition in which your bones become more likely to break. It often affects older people,especially women.
fatigue /fəˈtiɡ/ n.
- a feeling of being extremely tired, usually because of hard work or exercise
- I was heavy with fatigue and could not keep my eyes open.非常疲勞以至於無法睜開眼
- to go to bed later than usual
- you've got school tomorrow. I don't want you staying up late.
metabolism /məˈtæbəˌlɪzəm/ n.
all the chemical processes by which cells produce the energy and substances necessary for life.Food is separated into the parts it is made up ofto produce heat and energy, to repair tissues,and to help growth to happen新陳代謝
exercises to speed up your metabolism 運動加速新陳代謝
- a drug that reduces pain/a medicine that reduces pain
- She's on (= taking) painkillers.
the firm pink flesh in your mouth that your teeth are fixed into
periodontal /ˌpɛriəˈdɑntl/ a.
related to or affecting the parts of the mouth that surround and support the teeth
plaque /plæk/ n.
- a substance that forms onyour teeth and in which bacteria can grow and damage your teeth牙菌斑
- Remove plaque by brushing your teeth regularly.
acupuncture /ˈækjəˌpʌŋktʃər/ n.
a Chinese method of treating pain and illness using special thin needles that are pushed into the skin in particular parts of the body
abdominal /æbˈdɑmənl/ a.
- relating to or connected with the abdomen
- abdominal pains
- abdomen/ˈæbdəmən/ n.
- the part of the body below the chest that contains the stomach, bowels, etc.
to let out air from the stomach through the mouth, making a noise 打嗝
to help a baby to bring up air from its stomach by hitting it gently on the back 拍嗝
- relating to the lower part of the back
- pain in the lumbar region 疼痛在腰部
slipped disc =slipped disk
a painful condition caused when one of the disks between the bones of the spine in a person's back moves out of place【醫】椎間盤突出
contraceptive /ˌkɑntrəˈsɛptɪv/ n.
- a drug, device, or practice used to prevent a woman from becoming pregnant
- a contraceptive pill 避孕藥
- contraceptive advice/precautions/methods避孕諮詢/預防措施/方法
- the flow of blood each month from the body of a woman who is not pregnant
- period pains經痛
- monthly periods經期
- When did you last have a period?
menses /ˈmɛnsiz/ n.
the flow of blood each month from a woman's body 月經
menstrual /ˈmɛnstruəl/ a.
- connected with the time when a woman menstruates each month月經的
- menstrual cramps 【醫】（女性）痛經
- The average length of a woman's menstrual cycle is 28 days.
- (formal)a menstrual period經期
menstruate /ˈmɛnstruˌeɪt/ v.
when a woman menstruates, there is a flow of blood from her womb, usually once a month月經來潮;行經
- happening or experienced before menstruation
- Many women suffer from premenstrual syndrome, causing headaches and depression.許多婦女在受到經前症候群影響，引起頭痛和憂鬱。
a medical condition in which a person feels very sad and anxious and often has physical symptoms such as being unable to sleep, etc.
She suffered from severe depression after losing her job. 失去工作後患有嚴重憂鬱症
sanitary napkin =sanitary pad
a thick piece of soft material that women wear outside their body to absorb the blood during their period
- sanitary/ˈsænəˌtɛri/ a. 衛生的 relating to people's health,especially by removing human waste
- sanitary facilities.衛生設施
fracture /ˈfræktʃər/ n.
- 1.a break in a bone or other hard material
- She was admitted to hospital with fractures of both legs.她被送進醫院，雙腿骨折。
- 2.a break or crack in a very hard substance 斷裂
- Cracks and fractures are appearing in the ancient wall.裂紋和裂縫出現在古城牆。
- to damage something so that a line or long narrow hole appears on its surface, but it does not break into pieces
- I dropped a plate and cracked it.
- allow to enter
- to allow someone or something to enter a place
- Each ticket admits one adult.每票只限一人。
rehabilitate /ˌriəˈbɪləˌteɪt/ v.
- rehabilitate someone
- to help someone to have a normal, useful life again after they have been very sick or in prison for a long time( return to a healthy, independent,and useful life)
- a unit for rehabilitating drug addicts吸毒者
the unpleasant state that drug addicts experience when they suddenly stop taking a drug; a way of treating drug addicts that makes them experience this state使有毒癮者突然停用毒品而不是逐漸減少劑量的處理方法
addict /ˈædɪkt/ n.
- a person who is unable to stop taking harmful drugs
- the treatment and rehabilitation of addicts
plural sties or styes an infection of the eyelid (= the skin above or below the eye) that makes it red and sore【醫】瞼腺炎；（眼病）麥粒腫 =俗稱的針眼
plural /ˈplʊrəl/ n.
- (abbr. pl.) (grammar) a form of a noun or verb that refers to more than one person or thing
- The plural of “child” is “children.”
cataract /ˈkæt̮əˌrækt/ n.
a medical condition that affects the lens of the eye and causes a gradual loss of sight 白內障
the transparent part of the eye, behind the pupil, that focuses light so that you can see clearly水晶體
transparent /trænsˈpɛrənt/ a.
- (of glass, plastic, etc.) allowing you to see through it 透明的
- The insect's wings are almost transparent.
feverish /ˈfivərɪʃ/ a.
suffering from a fever; caused by a fever 發燒的
a mass of cells growing in or on a part of the body where they should not, usually causing medical problems 腫瘤
a brain tumor
hemorrhage /ˈhɛmrɪdʒ/ n.
- a medical condition in which there is severe loss of blood from inside a person's body
- He died of brain hemorrhage.
amputate /ˈæmpjəˌteɪt/ v.
- to cut off someone's arm, leg, finger, or toe in a medical operation
- He had to have both legs amputated.
cardiac /ˈkɑrdiˌæk/ a.
- connected with the heart or heart disease
- to suffer cardiac arrest 【醫】心搏停止，心臟停跳(= an occasion when a person's heart stops temporarily or permanently)
- an act of something stopping or being interrupted
- He died after suffering a cardiac arrest (= when his heart suddenly stopped).
inflammation /ˌɪnfləˈmeɪʃn/ n.
- a condition in which a part of the body becomes red, sore, and swollen because of infection or injury
- a cream to reduce inflammation
- inflammation of the ear
herpes /ˈhərpiz/ n.
one of a group of infectious diseases, caused by a virus, that cause painful spots on the skin, especially on the face and sexual organs 皰疹
- a swelling under the skin, sometimes a sign of serious illness
- Check your breasts for lumps every month.
scab /skæb/ n.
a hard layer of dry blood that forms when a cut on your skin is getting better 結痂
- a quantity or thickness of something that lies over a surface or between surfaces
- A thin layer of dust covered everything.薄博的一層灰
spasm /ˈspæzəm/ n.
- a sudden and often painful contracting of a muscle, that you cannot control痙攣，抽搐
- The injection sent his leg into spasm.
- to become less or smaller; to make something become less or smaller 收縮
- The exercise consists of stretching and contracting the leg muscles.
agony /ˈæɡəni/ n.
- extreme physical or mental pain
- It was agony not knowing where the children were.
- existing in the mind
- mental health心理健康