C1

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Author:
Sylvia
ID:
264659
Filename:
C1
Updated:
2014-03-02 12:42:08
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chemistry C1
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Chemistry,C1
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C1
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  1. Gases in the Earth's early atmosphere:
    Lots of CO2

    Little oxygen

    Water vapour

    Small amounts of other
  2. Formation of oceans:
    • Volcano produces water vapour (among other gases)
    • Condenses into liquid oceans
  3. Earth's early atmosphere was most like:
    • Mars/Venus
    • NOT Titan - Titan has icey exterior not rocky
  4. Changes to atmosphere:
    • Half CO2 dissolved into oceans
    • COAbsorbed by creatures like mollusks

    Organisms photosynthesize - more O2 less CO2
  5. Formation of Limestone:
    • Creatures have shells of calcium carbonate
    • Layers of dead creatures over time
    • Pressure makes Limestone
  6. Composition of atmosphere now:
    • 99% oxygen and nitrogen
    • Other 1% - methane, sulfur dioxide, water vapour
  7. Changes happening now to atmosphere:
    • Volcanoes
    • Human activity: deforestation, cattle farming, fossil fuel burning
  8. Igneous rocks:
    • Hard
    • Cooled magma
    • Interlocking crystals
    • Slow cool = BIG crystals
    • e.g Granite
  9. Sedimentary rocks:
    • Soft
    • Dead creatures
    • Fossils can be seen
    • Erode easily
    • e.g Limestone
  10. Metamorphic rocks:
    • Hard
    • Other rocks compressed over time with pressure
    • Crystals formed
    • e.g Marble
  11. Uses of limestone:
    • Cement
    • Toothpaste
    • Building
    • Paper
    • Glass
  12. Advantages/Disadvantages of Limestone quarrying:
    • Local economy
    • Jobs created

    • Scar on landscape
    • Expensive
    • Explosions are noisy
  13. Making of limestone:
    Calcium carbonate = Calcium oxide + CO2

    • Thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate
    • Add water to calcium oxide = calcium hydroxide
    • Calcium hydroxide IS limewater
  14. Antacids contain:
    Bases which neutralize stomach acids
  15. Metal oxide/hydroxide + acid =
    Metal salt + water
  16. Metal carbonate + acid =
    Metal salt + water + CO2
  17. Obtaining and testing for Chlorine:
    • Electrolysis of sea water
    • Damp blue litmus paper turns red then bleaches
  18. Uses of Chlorine:
    • Cleaning products e.g bleach
    • Treating water supply
    • Manufacture of plastics
  19. Electrolysis of water makes:
    • Hydrogen & Oxygen
    • Twice as much Hydrogen - H2O
  20. Test for Hydrogen:
    Test for Oxygen:
    Test for CO2
    • Squeaky pop
    • Relights glowing splint
    • Limewater goes milky
  21. Ores are:
    The rocks in which metal compounds (usually metal oxide) are found
  22. Few metals are found as:
    Pure elements - only unreactive e.g gold
  23. Reactivity series:
    Please Send Charlie's Monkeys And Zebras In Tall Lead Cages Securely Guarded
  24. How to obtain metals PSCMA from ores:
    • Electrolysis of molten compound:
    • aluminium oxide = aluminium + oxygen
    • REDUCTION
  25. How to obtain metals ZITLC from ores:
    • Heat ore with carbon:
    • iron oxide + carbon = iron + CO2

    REDUCTION
  26. Oxidation of metals:
    • Reacting with oxygen in air - CORRODING
    • More reactive metal = faster corrosion
  27. 4 Advantages of recycling metals:
    • Natural reserves last longer
    • Less mining - good for environment
    • Less pollution
    • Less waste in landfill sites
  28. Properties of all metals:
    • Shiny
    • Conduct heat & electricity
    • Malleable
    • Ductile
  29. Use of aluminium and why:
    Make aeroplanes - low density, no corroding
  30. Use of copper and why:
    Water pipes and wires - no react with water, good conducter
  31. Iron/Steel uses and why:
    • Iron cheap but too soft, mix with carbon = STEEL
    • Rusts but very strong, make bridges and buildings
  32. Alloy of gold:
    • Mixed with copper/silver
    • Pureness in carats
  33. Alloy of nickel and titanium:
    • NITINOL
    • Shape memory alloy - flexible glasses & arteries held open
  34. What is Crude oil and how is it made?
    Mixture of hydrocarbons with different numbers of carbon atoms

    Made like sedimentary rocks
  35. Fractions of crude oil and their uses:
    • Gases - vehicles
    • Petrol - cars
    • Kerosene - aircraft
    • Diesel oil - car
    • Fuel oil - heating
    • Bitumen - roads
  36. What is Complete Combustion and what does it produce?
    • All hydrocarbons used
    • Only produces CO2 and water
  37. What does Incomplete Combustion produce?
    • Carbon monoxide
    • Carbon (soot)
  38. How is the biofuel Ethanol made and what is it used for?
    • From wheat and sugar cane
    • Mix with petrol for fuel for cars
  39. Advantages and Disadvantages of biofuels:
    • Renewable
    • Less CO2
    • Takes up land
    • Deforestation
    • COmade in transport
  40. What makes a good fuel?
    • How easily it burns
    • Amount of energy produced
    • Storing and transport
    • Amount of waste produced
  41. What are Alkanes and what is the test for them?
    • Saturated hydrocarbons with SINGLE bonds between carbon atoms
    • Orange with bromine water
  42. 3 First Alkanes:
    • Methane - CH4
    • Ethane - C2H6
    • Propane - C3H8
  43. What are Alkenes and what is the test for them?
    • Unsaturated hydrocarbons with DOUBLE bonds
    • Colourless with bromine water
  44. 2 First Alkenes:
    • Ethene - C2H4
    • PropeneC3H6
  45. What is cracking?
    Splitting long hydrocarbon chains into smaller alkanes and some alkenes
  46. 4 Polymers and their uses:
    • Poly(ethene)/Polythene - plastic bags/bottles
    • Poly(propene) - buckets
    • Poly(chloroethene)/PVC - window frames
    • PTFE - non-stick frying pans

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