Biology Test 2 Notes

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Biology Test 2 Notes
2014-03-02 16:11:59
Biology test
Biology Test 2 Notes (Ch 5-8)
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  1. What are the 3 main types of cellular work?
    • Chemical-provides energy to drive the endergonic synthesis of products.
    • Mechanical-muscle cells cause proteins to change shape and pull protein filaments.
    • Transport-phosphorylating transport proteins.
  2. Two types of Inhibitors?
    • Competitive-block substrates from entering the active site and reduce an enzymes productivity.
    • Noncompetitive-bind to the enzyme somewhere other then the active site, changes shape of active site, and prevents the substrate from binding.
  3. Difference between Cellular Respiration and Respiration?
    • Cellular-is an exergonic process that transfers energy from the bonds in glucose to form ATP.
    • Respiration-is an exchange of gases, an organism obtains 02 and releases c02 as a waste product.
  4. Stages of Cellular Respiration
    • 1. Glycolysis-occurs in the cytoplasm (doesn't oxidize)
    • 2. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle-occurs in mitochrondria. (oxidizes)
    • 3. Oxidative Phosphorylation-occurs in inner mitochondrial membrane. (oxidizes)
  5. What products do glycolysis produce?
    • 2 Pyruvates
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 NADP
  6. Products of the Krebs Cycle
    • 6 c02
    • 2 H+
    • NADH, FADH2
    • Produce many organic acid
  7. Fermentation
    • partial oxidation of glucose/glucolysis
    • glucose breaks down to acid and gas
  8. Photosynthesis
    plants convert c02 and H20 to their own organic molecules and release 0as a by product.
  9. extra 5 points on exam
    there is more stomata on the face of the leaf.
  10. Two stages of photosynthesis
    • 1. Light Reaction (light dependent) occurs in the chloroplast and thylakoid membranes. 
    • 2. Calvin Cycle (light independent reaction) occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast. reduces C02 to sugar.
  11. The Calvin Cycle
    • Light Independent
    • Dark Reaction
    • 2nd stage of Photosynthesis
  12. Carbon Fixation
    • during the calvin cycle, C02 is incorporated into organic compounds. 
    • reduced to sugar
  13. Chlorophyll a
    absorbs blue-violet and red light and reflects green.
  14. Chlorophyll b
    absorbs blue and orange and reflects yellow-green.
  15. Sister Chromatids
    • Before a eukaryotic cell begins to divide, it duplicates all of its chromosomes into two copies.
    • they are joined together by a narrowed waist called centromere.
  16. Prophase
    • in the cytoplasm microtubules begin to emerge from centrosomes, forming the spindle.
    • in the nucleus chromosomes coil and become compact and nucleoli dissappear.
  17. Metaphase
    • The mitotic spindle is fully formed
    • Chromosomes align at the cell equator
    • kinetochores of sister chromatids are facing the opposite poles of the spindle.
  18. Anaphase
    • sister chromatids separate at the centromeres.
    • daughter chromosomes are moved to opposite poles of the cell.
    • the cell elongates due to lengthening of nonkinetochore microtubules.
  19. Telephase
    • the cell continues to elongate
    • the nuclear envelope forms around chromosomes at each pole, establishing daughter nuclei.
    • chromatin uncoils and nucleoli reappear.
    • the spindle disappears.
  20. Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis
    • Same: begin with diploid parent cells that have chromosomes duplicated during the previous interphase.
    • Different: Mitosis produces two genetically identical diploid somatic daughter cells
    • Meiosis produces four genetically unique haploid gametes.
  21. Sex Chromosomes XXY
    • Klinefelter Syndrome (male)
    • Meiosis in egg or sperm formation
    • Frequency 1/2,000
  22. Sex Chromosomes XYY
    • No Sydrome (normal male)
    • Meiosis in sperm formation
    • Frequency 1/2,000
  23. Sex Chromosomes XXX
    • No Syndrome (normal female)
    • Meiosis in egg or sperm formation
    • Frequency 1/1,000
  24. Sex Chromosomes XO
    • Turner Syndrome (female)
    • Meiosis in egg or sperm formation
    • Frequency 1/5,000