Physio Exam 3 Ch9 10 11 12

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Iflores
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Physio Exam 3 Ch9 10 11 12
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2014-03-03 16:27:40
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Human Physiology Silverthorn Dorner
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Physiology
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  1. Name and describe the 3 meninges, including properties, functions, and locations. ch9
    • The meninges are 3 layers of protective membranes that protect the spinal cord and brain.
    • Dura mater
    •    -thickest layer
    •    -associated with veins that drain blood from the brain through vessel or sinuses
    • arachnoid membrane
    •    -middle layer
    •    -loose webbing like structure leaving a space for the subarachnoid space that contains CSF
    • pia mater
    •    -inner membrane
    •    -thin layer that adheres to the brain
    •    -arteries run throughout this layer to supply the brain with blood
  2. Compare the symptoms you would expect a patient to exhibit if they experienced damage to the Wernicke's area vs. the damage to the Broca's area. ch9
    -the patient wouldn't be able to understand any spoken or visual information if they had damage to Wernicke's area, his own speech wouldn't make any sense because he is unaware

    -damage to Broca's area, able to understand a written and spoken language but not able to speak or write
  3. Name and describe the functions of each of the parts of the diencephalon. ch9
    • seahorse head
    • THALAMUS   
    •    -seahorse eye
    •    -integration center
    •    -relay station for sensory and motor info
    •    -all lower parts of CNS pass through
    •    -pretty much everything need the ok from it
    • HYPOTHALAMUS
    •    -seahorse mouth
    •    -center for homeostasis
    •    -behavioral drives
    •    -activates sympathetic nervous system
    •    -maintains BGL levels through pancreas
    •    -maintain body temp
    •    -controls osmolarity
    •      thirst
    •      stimulates secretion of vasopressin
    •    -reproductive function oxytocin(for uterine and milk release)     trophic hormone control of anterior pituitary hormones FSH and LH
    •    -controls food intake
    •    -interacts with limbic sys
    •    -cardiovascular control in medulla
    •    -secretes trophic hormones that control the release of hormone in the anterior pituitary
    • PITUITARY GLAND
    •    -hormone secretion
    • PINEAL GLAND
    •    -melatonin secretion
  4. Explain the basic sleep cycle. Include a description of REM sleep, delta wave, etc. ch9
    • -there are 4 stages or sleep
    • -the two major stages are 
    •     stage 1(REM sleep), closer to being awake, where most dreams take place.
    •     stage 4(slow wave, deep sleep, non-REM sleep) where delta waves occur, happens during the first three hours of sleep
    • -a typical eight hour sleep consists of repeating cycles. The first 3 hours are spent going from s1 to s4, thereafter the person hang around s2 until they wake up.
  5. What role do each of the neuroglia cells play in the Central Nervous System. ch9
    • microglia-modified immune cells
    • astrocytes-help form BBB
    • ependymal cells-separate CNS fluid compartments
    • ogliodendrocytes-form myelin

    • schwann cells-form myelin, PNS
    • satellite cells-found in ganglia and PNS
  6. What are the five main functions of the hypothalamus? ch9
    • 1. activates sympathetic nervous system
    • 2. maintains body temp
    • 3. controls body osmolarity
    • 4. controls reproductive functions
    • 5. secrete trophic hormones that control the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland
  7. Name the four types of sensory receptors and give an example of each of there stimuli. ch10
    • Mechanoreceptors-baroreceptors(cell stretch)
    • Chemoreceptors-O2 levels
    • Thermoreceptors-detects temp
    • Photoreceptors-photons of light
  8. Explain the difference between tonic and phasic receptors. Give an example of each. ch10
    • tonic receptors fire quickly then maintain a slow steady pace as long as the stimulus there.
    • -like a shirt getting bunched up
    • phasic receptors adapt quickly and maintain the there strength until the stimulus stops.
    • -like a splinter
  9. There are 3 types of somatosensory receptors: beta, delta, and C fibers. Describe their basic characteristic and the stimuli each one is associated with. ch10
    • Aβ(beta)
    • -large myelinated fiber
    • -associated with mechanical stimuli
    • Aδ(delta)
    • -small myelinated fiber
    • -associated with cold, fast pain, mechanical stimuli
    • C fibers
    • -small unmyelinated fiber
    • -assicaited with slow pain, heat, cold, mechanical stimuli
  10. Describe the process of phototransduction in the rods of the retina.
    -in darkness, rhodopsin is inatcive, cGMP is high, and CNG and K channels are open.

    • during light
    • -light bleaches rhodopsin(retinal is activated transducin G protein and begins cascade)-->cGMP increases-->CNG gate is closed-->membrane hyperpolarizes
  11. How does the cochlear 'hear' different pitches of sound? Be specific
    When sound reaches the basilar membrane of the cochlea, high pitch frequency is heard towards the oval window where the membrane is stiffer. Lower pitch frequency is heard toward the helicotrema where the membrane is more flexible
  12. Explain the steps in signal transduction of sound at the Organ or Corti? How is this similar to the way the equilibrium organs(in the inner ear) work?
    • sound wave pass through the vestibular duct into the cochlear duct-->movement of the tectorial membrane move hair cells-->at rest, hair cells still release neurotramitters(tonic signal), when excited, hair cells bend in one direction and depolarize membrane and open more channels-->cochlear nerve-->auditory cortex 
    • equilibrium
    • -the cristae sense rotational acceleration via cupola in endolymph-->hair cells
    • -macula sense linear acceleration and head position via otoliths crystals and gelatinous otolith membrane--> hair cells
    • -signal travels down vestibular brach of vestibulocochlear nerve
  13. Describe the cycle release and removal of norepinephire(NE) at a sympathetic neuroeffector junction. How is this different than what happens to Acetycholine in the parasympathetic system.  ch11
    • sympathetic
    • action potential arrives at a varicosity-->depolarizes and opens Ca channels--> Ca triggers exocytosis of synaptic vesicles--> NE is released and bind to adrenergic receptors--> some NE diffuse to blood vessel, some are actively brought back into varicosity--> some NE are rereleased in vesicles and some are metabolized nay MAO
    • parasympathetic
    •    -acetylcholine bind to nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, 
    •    -synthesized from acetyl CoA+choline
    •    -inactive enzyme acetylcholinesterase in synaptic cleft
  14. Compare and contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic synapse with regard to the neurotransmitters and receptors involved in each. ch11
    • sympathetic division
    •    -have norepinephrine neurotransmitters
    •    -(a) and (b) adenergic receptors
    •    -synthesized from tyrosine
    •    -MAO in mitochondria of varicosity 

    • parasympathetic division
    •    -acetylcholine(ACh) neurotransmitters
    •    -nicotinic and muscarinic receptors
    •    -synthesized from acetyl CoA+choline
    •    -acetylcholinesterase in synaptic cleft-inactivation enzyme
  15. Describe the process that take place at the neuromuscular junction(skeletal muscle) when an action potential arrives at the axon terminal. ch11
    action potential arrives and depolarizes membrane--> voltage-gated Ca channel open-->Ca cause vesicle to release ACh into synaptic cleft-->two ACh bind to one nicotinic receptors-->opens monovalent cation channel--> allow Na and K movement--> Net Na influx depolarizes muscle fiber.
  16. Compare and contrast the two branches of the autonomic nervous system with regard to nerve anatomy and function. ch11
    sympathetic nerves originate from the thoracolumbar region, they have short preganglionic nerves and long postganglionic nerves that release norepinephrine on adrenergic receptors of target cells Stimulates the body for a flight or flight response.  

    parasympathetic nerves originate in the craniosacral region and have long preganglionic nerves and short postganglionic neurons that release ACh neurotransmitters onto muscarinic receptors of target cells. creates a localized effect. Rest and repose.

    Both preganglionic neurons release ACh onto nicotinic cholinergic receptors on postganglionic cell.
  17. Compare a neuromuscular junction synapse in the somatic NS with a synapse in smooth muscle(include the importance in varicosites). ch11
    • -somatic neurons synapse onto a motor end plates while autonomic neurons end on varicosus. varicosus are beadlike structures that wrap smooth muscle cells, they help in sending the response evenly throughout the target
    • -Ca comes from ECF and SR in smooth muscle(SM)
    • -SM does not require action potential
    • -no troponin in SM, Ca starts phosphorylation of myosin
    • -additional step in relaxation of SM, dephospho rylation of MLC by phosphate
  18. compare the somatic and autonomic divisions on terms of number of neurons, neurotransmitters, effectors, and basic functions. ch11
    •              somatic motor            autonomic
    • neuron efferent          1                    2
    •               ACh/nicotinic    ACh/muscarinic
    •                                     NE/a or b adrengenic
    • target tiss.   skeletal      smooth & cardiac;
    •                                  some endo- exocrine
    • neurot relsed    AT           varicosity & AT
    • effects     excitatory only   excite and inhibit
    • function        posture        visceral function 
    •                  movement
  19. What are the 5 adrenergic receptors?  Where is each found and how do they affect the cell (i.e., what 2nd messenger is affected and how)?  ch11
    • a1 
    • -found in most sympathetic target tissue
    • -activates phospholipase C

    • a2
    • -found in gastrointestinal tract and pancreas
    • -decreases cAMP

    • b1
    • -found in heart muscle & kidney
    • -increase cAMP

    • b2
    • -certain blood vessels & smooth muscle of some organs
    • -increases cAMP

    • b3
    • -adipose tissue
    • -increases cAMP
  20. Describe the pathway for smooth muscle contraction (including chemicals, receptors, etc.).ch 12
    Ca concentrarion increases when Ca enters from ECF and SR-->Ca binds to CaM--> Ca+CaM activate MLCK-->MLCK phosphorylates LC in myosin heads and increase myosin ATPase--> myosin slide along actin creating muscle tension
  21. Compare and contrast the 3 types of muscle fibers. Be specific! ch12
    • Skeletal Muscle
    •    -striated
    •    -have sarcomere (arrangement) 
    •    -attached to bones;few spchinters close off hollow organs
    •    -multinucleated, large cylinder fibers
    •    -t tubule & SR
    •    -actin, myosin, troponin, tropomyosin
    •    -Ca and troponin (control)
    •    -fastest
    •    -ACh from motor neuron (initiation)
    •    -somatic
    •    -no hormonal influence
    • Smooth muscle
    •    -no sarcomere
    •    -froms hollow walls of organs and tubes
    •    -unnucleated, spindle shaped
    •    -no t tubule, has SR
    •    -Actin, myosin, tropomyosin
    •    -Ca and CaM
    •    -slowest
    •    -stretch, chemical signals, can be auto rhythmic
    •    -autonomic neurons
    •    -multiple hormones
    • Cardiac Muscle
    •    -striated
    •    -sarcomeres
    •    -heart muscle
    •    -uninucleated, branched formation
    •    -t tubule and SR
    •    -actin, myosin, troponin, tropomyosin
    •    -Ca and troponin
    •    -intermediate
    •    -autorhythmic
    •    -autonomic neuron
    •    -epinephrine 
  22. What is the important of Ca in skeletal muscle fibers? Where is it stored, how is it released and what role does it play in contraction? ch12
    • -Ca signals initiate contraction
    • -Ca binds to troponin(TN)--> Ca+TN complex lift tropomyosin exposing actin--> myosin head binds strongly to actin "power stroke"--> myosin moves actin filament
    • -Ca is stored in the SR
    • -ACh released from somatic motor neuron and bind to motor end plate--> Na pass through ACh channel and trigger action potential (AP)-->AP travels down T tubule-->alter DHP-->RyR channel releases Ca from SR
  23. Describe the steps of skeletal muscle contraction that demonstrate sliding filament theory. ch12
    • describe "power stroke"
    • actin and myosin slide past each other, they don't get smaller
    • A band stay the same length
    • H zone and I band gets smaller
    • Z disk move closer

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