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- what you are talking about.
- what you are saying about it.
- Categorical Proposition:
Men are pigs.
Compound Propositions: Hypothetical, Disjunctive, Conjunctive
If men like hamburgers, then men are pigs.
Either men are dogs or men are pigs.
Men are both dogs and pigs.
= “All men are pigs” (Singulars are treated as universals: “Jimmy is a pig”)
= “Some men are pigs” (includes “most,” “many,” etc.)
= “All men are pigs”
= “No men are pigs”
A, E, I, O
- Universal Affirmative (All S is P)
- Universal Negative (No S is P)
- Particular Affirmative (Some S is P)
- Particular Negative (Some S is not P)
A term is distributed when it refers to all; undistributed when it refers to some.
- The Subject of a Universal Proposition (A or E) is always distributed.
- The Predicate of a Negative Proposition (E or O) is always distributed.
A - All Sd is Pu
E - No Sd is Pd
I - Some Su is Pu
O - Some Su is not Pd