A&P Quiz 6

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Annjones430
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264678
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A&P Quiz 6
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2014-03-03 17:54:23
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A&P Quiz 6
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  1. Articulation
    • modification of the airstream into various sounds
    • process of joining two things together
  2. Source Filter Theory
    • Describes how the vocal tract is able to change shape, thereby changing the sound that is produced by the larynx.
    • Produces vowels and consonants
  3. Vocal Tract
    • Oral Cavity
    • Pharynx
    • Nasal Cavity
    • *Also known as articulators
  4. Resonant Frequency of Cavity
    • Frequency of sound to which the cavity most effectively responds
    • Changing the shape of the cavity changes the resonant frequency
    • Determined by volume and length of the cavity
  5. Mobile Articulators
    • Tongue 
    • Lips
    • Pharynx
    • Mandible (Lower Jaw)
    • Velum (Soft Palate)
  6. Immobile Articulators
    • Teeth
    • Hard Palate
    • Alveolar Ridge
  7. Laryngopharynx
    • Combination of the Larynx and Pharynx
    • Extends from larynx in esophagus to the hyoid bone
    • Not visible looking through the oral cavity
  8. Oropharynx
    • Combination of oral cavity and the pharynx
    • Extends from just above the laryngopharynx to the soft palate
    • Visible looking through the mouth
    • Behind posterior faucial pillar/arch
    • Posterior Faucial Pillar/Arch: separates oropharynx from the mouth
  9. Nasopharynx
    • Extends from soft palate to base of the skull 
    • Entrance to nasal cavity from the back o the throat 
    • Ends at medial septum
    • Medial Septum: Separates 2 chambers of the nose
  10. Inferior Constrictor Muscle
    • Extends from both sides of the thyroid cartilage and wraps around the lower to mid sections of the pharynx
    • Lowest, Strongest and Largest of 3 Pharyngeal Muscles 
    • Reduces the diameter of lower pharynx when contracted (swallowing)
  11. Middle Constrictor Muscle
    • Overlapped by inferior constrictor muscle
    • Extends from hyoid bone and wraps around the sides and back of pharynx
    • Reduces size of the pharynx when contracted
  12. Superior Constrictor Muscle
    • Weakest and smallest of 3 Pharyngeal Muscles 
    • Wraps around upper pharynx almost reaching the base of the skull
    • Forms the sides and back wall of the nasopharynx 
    • Part of the back wall of the oropharynx
    • Pulls pharynx closer to soft palate for velopharyngeal closure
  13. Sphenoid Bone
    • In the base of the skull
    • Forms roof of the pharynx and nasal cavities
    • Looks like a bat in flight 
    • Greater Wings: Larger part on each side
    • Lesser wings: smaller part on each side above the greater wings 
    • Sphenoid Sinuses: 2 air filled cavities of sphenoid
    • Lateral and Medial Pterygoid Plate: Back wall of the nasal cavity; important for speech
  14. Hamulus of the Pterygoid
    • Attached to the bottom of the medial pterygoid plate 
    • Hook like projection 
    • Upper attachment of the pterygomandibular ligament (Lower attachment of the ligament is in the jaw)
    • Serves as a pulley for tendon that stretches the soft palate 
    • Raises soft palate up
  15. Soft Palate
    • Very movable muscle mass
    • Separates oral and nasal cavity 
    • Attached to the palatine bone at the front 
    • Muscular extension of the hard palate 
    • Uvula marks the end of the soft palate
  16. Tensor Palatini Muscles
    • Tense and shorten soft palate 
    • Originate from medial pterygoid plate of sphenoid
    • Inserts into the velum 
    • Helps to open the eustachian tube
  17. Levator Palatini
    • Elevate Velum
    • Facilitate in velopharyngeal closure
  18. Adenoids (Pharyngeal Tonsils)
    Point of closure in velopharyngeal closure
  19. Velar Depressors
    • Palatopharyngeus (Posterior Faucial Pillar): muscle that lowers the velum
    • Palatoglossus (Anterior Faucial Pillar)
  20. Palatine Tonsil
    Between anterior and superior faucial pillar
  21. Lingual Tonsil
    Located at the base of the tongue
  22. The 3 Tonsils
    • Lingual; Palatine; Pharyngeal
    • Together form Waldeyer's ring
    • Reach max growth at 10yrs old
    • Atrophy (start to shrink) at puberty 
    • Produce antibodies that support the immune system

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