Basic Mechanical Ventilation

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
264685
Filename:
Basic Mechanical Ventilation
Updated:
2014-03-02 16:08:02
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Mechanical Ventilation
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mechanical ventilation
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  1. the movement of gas into & out of the lungs
    ventilation
  2. movement of gas across a membrane, can be internal or external
    respiration
  3. Name the 4 physical parameters of ventilation
    flow, volume, pressure, time
  4. speed with which gas is delivered through the airways
    flow
  5. gas flows as a result of a ...
    pressure gradient
  6. flow is from point of ... to ... pressure
    highest to lowest
  7. When does flow stop?
    when gradient = 0
  8. flow depends upon the ... x the ...
    pressure change x size of the airway
  9. if pressure gradient is halved, the flow is ...
    halved
  10. if the radius is halved, the flow is ...
    1/16
  11. quantity of gas delivered
    volume
  12. volume is determined by the ... x ...
    flow rate x amount of time flow continues
  13. force exerted by a gas on an area
    pressure
  14. pressure at any particular point in the lumen of a vessel
    intraluminal pressure
  15. difference between the pressure in the airway & the pressure surrounding the airway
    transmural pressure
  16. pressure drop between one end of an airway & the other
    driving pressure
  17. gradient between the airway opening (mouth) & alveolus
    transairway pressure (PTA)
  18. responsible for movement of air in the conductive airways, represents pressure needed to overcome the airway resistance
    transairway pressure
  19. pressure difference between the inside of the lung & the outside of the lung
    transpulmonary pressure (PL)
  20. transpulmonary pressure is also called ...
    alveolar distending pressure
  21. all modes of ventilation increase PL by either increasing ... or decreasing ...
    PA or PPL
  22. pressure in pleural space is normally ... than the pressure in alveolus so the lung expands outward
    lower
  23. when pressure in pleural space exceeds that in the lung
    pneumothorax
  24. pressure difference between alveolar space & body surface
    transthoracic pressure (PW)
  25. PBS usually =
    barometric pressure (except during negative pressure ventilation)
  26. pressure needed to expand or contract both the lungs & chest wall simultaneously
    transthoracic pressure (PW)
  27. pressure gradient between airway opening & body surface
    transrespiratory pressure (PTR)
  28. pressure required during positive pressure ventilation
    transrespiratory pressure (PTR)
  29. amount of pressure the machine must develop to overcome the transairway, transpulmonary,  & transthoracic pressures together
    transrespiratory pressure
  30. PTR is usually called ...
    peak inspiratory pressure
  31. pressure required to overcome elastic forces of the lung
    compliance
  32. pressure required to overcome frictional forces of the airways
    airway resistance
  33. pressure gradient between pleural space & abdominal cavity
    transdiaphragmatic pressure (PDI)
  34. pressure inside the airways vs. pressure outside the airway
    transmural pressure (PTM)
  35. during inspiration pressure inside airway ... compared to pressure outside the airway
    increases
  36. point where collapse during exhalation begins
    equal pressure point
  37. distending pressure required to inflate the lung
    compliance
  38. compliance of the lung depends upon the ... & ...
    distensibility of the lung tissue & surface tension factors
  39. difference in inflation & deflation curves is due to surface tension
    hysteresis
  40. amount of pressure required to initiate inflation
    critical opening pressure
  41. ease with which lung stretches
    compliance
  42. volume of air remaining in the lungs at the point where chest & lung forces are equal & counterbalance each other
    functional residual capacity (FRC)
  43. normal compliance of chest wall= 
    normla compliance of the lung =
    • 200 ml/cmH20 
    • 200 ml/cmH20
  44. examples of disease: 
    increased compliance of lung = 
    decreased compliance of lung = 
    increased compliance of chest wall = 
    decreased compliance of chest wall =
    • emphysema 
    • pulmonary fibrosis 
    • broken ribs 
    • kyphosis/scoliosis
  45. is equal to pressure required to overcome frictional forces of the airway & tissues
    airway resistance
  46. Name to 2 airway resistance components:
    • 1. frictional forces caused by movement of tissues & organs during inspiration 
    • 2. resistance to gas flow through the airways themselves
  47. airway resistance is affected by ... & ...
    diameter of airways & flow rate of gas during inspiration
  48. anything which reduces airway diameter =
    greatly increases resistance
  49. as resistance increases, the driving pressure ...
    must increase to deliver same volume of air
  50. 80% of airway resistance occurs in the ...
    nose, mouth, & large airways (due to turbulent flow)
  51. 20% of airway resistance occurs in ...
    small airways (due to extensive branching)
  52. time for a complete breath
    total cycle time (TCT)
  53. what is normal TCT?
    60 sec/min/f
  54. TCT 4 phases of ventilation:
    • 1. inspiration 
    • 2. end inspiratory pause 
    • 3. exhalation 
    • 4. end expiratory pause
  55. active phase of ventilation, when flow & pressure are applied
    inspiratory time (Ti)
  56. breath hold, can vary in length
    end inspiratory pause
  57. passive, normally longer than inspiration
    exhalation (Te)
  58. determined by volume delivered & resistance & elastance of the lung
    Te
  59. more elastic the lung the more rapidly it recoils =
    shorter the Te
  60. more compliant the lung (less elastic) =
    longer the Te (COPD)
  61. higher the resistance =
    longer the Te (asthma)
  62. variable, nor airflow, increases TCT
    end expiratory pause
  63. amount of time for inspiration in relationship to exhalation
    I:E ratio
  64. TTi = Ti + Ip is called:
    inspiratory pause
  65. TTe = Te + Eh is called:
    expiratory hold
  66. exhalation depends on ...
    stability of the airways
  67. stability of the airways is produced by ... & ...
    anatomical support & pressure differences
  68. in larger airways, support is provided by ... 
    in smaller airways, support is provided by ...
    • cartilage 
    • lung parenchyma
  69. a forced exhalation resulting in contraction of expiratory muscles causes an ...
    increase in pleural pressure
  70. point where pressure inside airway (transairway pressure) = the pleural pressure
    equal pressure point
  71. work necessary to overcome frictional & elastic forces opposing inflation
    mechanical work
  72. measurement of oxygen cost of breathing
    metabolic work
  73. more pressure required or more volume delivered =
    more work done
  74. 2/3 work is done overcoming ... 
    1/3 work is done overcoming ...
    • elastic forces 
    • frictional resistance
  75. large tidal volumes increase ...
    elastic component of work
  76. high respiratory rates increase ...
    frictional component of work
  77. restrictive disorders increase ...
    elastic component of work
  78. obstructive disorders increase ...
    frictional components of work
  79. name the 3 types of mechanical ventilation
    • negative pressure ventilation 
    • positive pressure ventilation 
    • high frequency ventilation
  80. acts the most like spontaneous ventilation
    negative pressure ventilation

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