ABS Exam 2 (1-living in water)

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djwon1
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ABS Exam 2 (1-living in water)
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2014-03-02 23:56:18
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  1. Properties of Water
    A. Density - ___x more than air
    B. Viscosity - ___x more than air
    C. Oxygen ___
    D. Heat capacity - ___x
    E. Heat conductivity - ___x
    F. Electrical conductivity
    • 800
    • 18
    • low
    • 3400
    • 24
    • Good
  2. 4 Adaptations of Fishes to Aquatic Environment
    • Gills and gas exchange surfaces
    • Air bladder
    • Efficient kidney (excretion and water regulation)
    • Specialized sensory systems
  3. GILLS
    Obtaining ___ from Water
    Specialized structures for ___
    Flow of water is usually ___
    Teleosts -
    • oxygen
    • gas exchange
    • Unidirectional
    • derived ray-finned fishes; highest marineand freshwater diversity
  4. Gills of Bony Fishes
    Opercular Cavity -
    pharyngealpockets; enclose gills
  5. Gills of Bony Fishes
    Operculum-
    Gill cover
  6. Gills of Bony Fishes
    Gill Filament
    respiratorysurfaces extending from arch
  7. Gills of Bony Fishes
    Secondary Lamallae
    microscopic projectionswithin filaments where gasexchange takes place
  8. Gills of Bony Fishes
    Afferent Artery
    arch to filament
  9. Gills of Bony Fishes
    Efferent Artery
    returns blood to arch
  10. COUNTERCURRENT EXCHANGE
    Blood flow through lamallae is opposite to direction ofwater flow across gill.
  11. advantage of Countercurrent Exchange
    maintains a difference in oxygen concentration (a diffusion gradient) between blood and water for the full length of the lamella and results in a high oxygen concentration in the blood leaving the gills
  12. countercurrent exchange
    if water and blood flowed in the same direction?
    the difference in oxygen concentration and the diffusion gradient would be high initially, but would drop to zero as the concentration of oxygen equalized. No further exchange of oxygen. Thus, low oxygen in blood leaving gills.
  13. Different adaptations for maximizing gas exchangedepending on level of activity of animal
    High oxygen capacity -
    • higher number of secondary lamallae
    • larger gill area
  14. 3 Mechanisms of Pumping Water Across Gills
    • 1. buccal pumping
    • 2. Ram ventilation
    • 3. combination of both
  15. buccal pumping creates
    • pumping action of the mouth and opercular cavities
    • positive pressure
  16. Ram ventilation?
    • creates a respiratory current by swimming with their mouths open
    • they must swim continuously
  17. advantage of combination of buccal pumping and ram ventilation?
    • rely on buccal pumping when they are at rest 
    • switch to ram ventilation whey they are swimming
  18. obtaining oxygen from air - for the fishes live in low oxygen
    • 1. Facultative Air Breathers 
    •  - switch to accessory respiratory structures when O2 level is low (Labryrinths head)
    • 2. Obligatory Air Breathers
    •  - electric eel
  19. swim bladder is located between ___ and ___
    • peritoneal cavity
    • vertebral column
  20. when fishes swim up, they
    remove gas from the bladder
  21. when fishes swim down, they
    secret gas into the bladder
  22. 4 components of swim bladder
    • pneumatic duct
    • gas gland
    • rete mirabile - countercurrent exchange
    • ovale - valve
  23. Physostomous Fishes
    • have a pneumatic duct
    • can gulp air at surface to fill bladder and burp gas out to reduce volume.
  24. Physoclistic Fishes
    Secrete gas into bladder from blood, move gas back to blood through ovale.
  25. both physostomous and physoclistic fishes have
    gas gland connected to rete mirabile
  26. how does gas gland work?
    • the gas gland secretes oxygen by releasing lactic acid and CO2 --> acidify the blood int he rete mirabile
    • causes hemoglobin to release oxygen into solution
  27. Cartilaginous fishes have
    no swim bladder
  28. what do cartilaginous fishes use for buoyancy?
    high oil content in liver
  29. Mostly external taste buds:
    mouth, head, anterior fins; receptors and olfactory sensors in snout
  30. lateral line system:
    • detecting(interpret) water displacement
    • changes in lateral line nerve firing rates inform a fish of the direction of water currents on different surfaces of its body
    • low frequency sound
  31. NEUROMAST ORGANS – have hair cells ___.
    Kinocilium
  32. Neuromast: impulses from ___ in each direction.
    Kinocilia
  33. seawater conducts ___ much better than freshwater
    electricity
  34. animals use electrical discharge for
    • detection
    • weapon
    • stun prey
    • courtship/territorial defense
  35. Electrocytes are
    • cells of modified muscles
    • Do not contract, generate an ion current flow
  36. Electrocytes arranged in stacks
    combination of so many high voltages
  37. Electroreception by Sharks and Rays –
    Ampullae of Lorenzini
  38. Freshwater verts.: tend to ___ H2O by osmosis, ___ ions by diffusion
    • gain
    • lose
  39. Saltwater verts.: tend to ___ H2O by osmosis, ___ ions by diffusion
    • lose 
    • gain
  40. rete mirabile?
    moves gas from the blood to the gas bladder
  41. neuromast organs are dispersed over the surface of the ___
    head
  42. ampullae of Lorenzini is
    sensitive electroreceptors that sharks and rays have. it is a structure which detects the electrical activity that accompanies muscle contractions of their prey.

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