psychology ch 4 study guide

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  1. Perception
    the organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation
  2. sensation
    simple stimulation of a sense organ
  3. amplitude of light waves
    Amplitude = brightness (the higher the brighter)
  4. wavelength of light waves
    length = hue, or what we preceive as color
  5. purity
    purity (the number of distinct wavelengths that make up the light) = saturation or richness of color
  6. light accommodation
    the process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina
  7. cones
    photo-receptors that detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on fine detail

    • see in either red, blue, or green 
    • we have about 6 million
  8. rods
    photo-receptors that become active under low-light conditions for night visions 

    they detect only shades of gray. 

    we have 120 million rods
  9. outer ear
    the pinna (ear funnel) , the auditory cannel (where the sound is channeled) 

    and the eardrum (a drum that vibrates to sound waves)
  10. middle ear
    Ossicles (three bones that that mechanically transmit sound)
  11. inner ear
    cochlea (snail thing) - a fluid filled tube that is divided by the basilar membrane

    Basilar membrane - a structure that moves when vibrations reach the cochlear fluid

    Hair Cells -  Embedded in the basilar membrane, release neurotransmitter molecules , initiating a neural signal in the auditory nerve

    auditory nerve - sends electrical signals to the brain
  12. Amplitude, frequency, complexity of sound waves
    frequency = pitch , low frequency = low pitch, high frequency = high pitch

    Amplitude = corresponds to volume, high amplitude = loud volume, low amplitude = low volume

    complexity = purity of tones
  13. 1)what happens to your ear when you hear extremely loud noises
    2) what level of noise is safe/dangerous
    3) how the ear can be damaged
    • 1)When you hear exceptionally loud noises, your stereocilia (hair cells) become damaged and mistakenly keep sending sound information to the auditory nerve cells
    • the ringing happens because the tips of some of your stereocilia actually have broken off.

    2)  85 decibles is safe limit

    3) the tips of some of your stereocilia actually have broken off.
  14. what happens in the visual system if each component was destroyed
    1) What would happen to a person’s vision if the occipital lobe was destroyed?

    They would be blind

    • 2) What would happen to a person’s vision if the cornea was destroyed?
    • Their vision would be blurry

    • 3) What would happen to a person’s vision if the rods and cones were destroyed?
    • They would be blind

    • 4) What would happen to a person’s vision if the lens was destroyed?
    • Their vision would be blurry
  15. the physical energy necessary for rods, cones, and inner ear hair cells to fire
  16. Single-neuron feature detectors?
  17. feature intergration theory
    the idea that focused attention is not required to detect the individual features that comprise a stimulus but is required to bind those individual features together
  18. illusory conjunction
    a perceptual mistake where features from multiple objects are incorrectly combined 

    example reporting errors when combining colors, shapes, and numbers together...
  19. perceptual constancy
    a perceptual principle stating that even as aspects of sensory signals change, perception remains consistent

    example: a letter "G" in different size, shapes, angles, and fonts are all perceived as the letter "G"
  20. monocular and binocular depth cues
    monocular depth cues: aspects of a scene that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye

    Binocular disparity: the difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depth
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psychology ch 4 study guide
2014-03-02 21:52:36
psychology study guide
psychology ch 4 study guide
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