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the organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation
simple stimulation of a sense organ
amplitude of light waves
Amplitude = brightness (the higher the brighter)
wavelength of light waves
length = hue, or what we preceive as color
purity (the number of distinct wavelengths that make up the light) = saturation or richness of color
the process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina
photo-receptors that detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on fine detail
- see in either red, blue, or green
- we have about 6 million
photo-receptors that become active under low-light conditions for night visions
they detect only shades of gray.
we have 120 million rods
the pinna (ear funnel) , the auditory cannel (where the sound is channeled)
and the eardrum (a drum that vibrates to sound waves)
Ossicles (three bones that that mechanically transmit sound)
cochlea (snail thing) - a fluid filled tube that is divided by the basilar membrane
Basilar membrane - a structure that moves when vibrations reach the cochlear fluid
Hair Cells - Embedded in the basilar membrane, release neurotransmitter molecules , initiating a neural signal in the auditory nerve
auditory nerve - sends electrical signals to the brain
Amplitude, frequency, complexity of sound waves
frequency = pitch , low frequency = low pitch, high frequency = high pitch
Amplitude = corresponds to volume, high amplitude = loud volume, low amplitude = low volume
complexity = purity of tones
1)what happens to your ear when you hear extremely loud noises
2) what level of noise is safe/dangerous
3) how the ear can be damaged
- 1)When you hear exceptionally loud noises, your stereocilia (hair cells) become damaged and mistakenly keep sending sound information to the auditory nerve cells
- the ringing happens because the tips of some of your stereocilia actually have broken off.
2) 85 decibles is safe limit
3) the tips of some of your stereocilia actually have broken off.
what happens in the visual system if each component was destroyed
1) What would happen to a person’s vision if the occipital lobe was destroyed?
They would be blind
- 2) What would happen to a person’s vision if the cornea was destroyed?
- Their vision would be blurry
- 3) What would happen to a person’s vision if the rods and cones were destroyed?
- They would be blind
- 4) What would happen to a person’s vision if the lens was destroyed?
- Their vision would be blurry
the physical energy necessary for rods, cones, and inner ear hair cells to fire
Single-neuron feature detectors?
feature intergration theory
the idea that focused attention is not required to detect the individual features that comprise a stimulus but is required to bind those individual features together
a perceptual mistake where features from multiple objects are incorrectly combined
example reporting errors when combining colors, shapes, and numbers together...
a perceptual principle stating that even as aspects of sensory signals change, perception remains consistent
example: a letter "G" in different size, shapes, angles, and fonts are all perceived as the letter "G"
monocular and binocular depth cues
monocular depth cues: aspects of a scene that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye
Binocular disparity: the difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depth