Cell Cycle A&P
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Division of the nucleus.
4 Stages of Mitosis
Chromatin become chromosomes, nuclear envelop and nucleolus disappears, centrioles appear and go to opposite sides (poles) of the cell, and spindle fibers form between the centrioles forming an aster.
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell ( equator)
Chromosomes are pulled apart
Spindle fibers and centrioles disappear, nuclear envelope and nucleolus reappear, chromosomes unwind and become chromatin, cell begins to pinch inward
Division of the cytoplasm
Division of the sex cell
Explain the reduction division
There are two nuclear reductions which reduce the number of chromosomes by half.
Meiosis is responsible for
Somatic Cells contain how many chromosomes
Why is the 46 chromosomes in the somatic cells called a "Diploid Number?"
Chromosomes in somatic cells occur in pairs, each number of the pair is present so there are 23 pairs, or 46 chromosomes.
How many Chromosomes are in a gamete?
When one member of each pair is present= number of chromosomes
- Occurs in Body cells
- Makes Identical cells
- One Nuclear Division
( My cells)
Meiosis- Brief Discription
- Occurs in sex cells
- allows for genetic deversity
- Two nuclear divisions
- Reduction division
What invention revolutionized many things in the modern medical world?
Viruses are _______.
Living. They are not made up of a cell(s)
- Serves as the boundary of the cell. Maintains it integrity. Protein molecules embedded in the plasma membrane performs various functions; for examples, they serve as markers that identify cells of each individual, as receptor of molecules for certain hormones and other molecules, and as transport mechanisms.
- Covers the entire cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough
Ribosomes attached to rough ER synthesize proteins that leave cells via the Golgi apparatus;
- Smooth ER synthesizes lipids incorporated in the cell membranes, steroid hormones, and certain carbohydrates used to form glycoproteins. Also removes and stores Ca++ from the cell's interior.
- Synthesizes carbohydrate, combines it with protein and packages the product as globules of glycoprotein.
Temporarily contain molecules for transport for later use.; Membranous
Digestive Enzymes break down defective cell parts and ingested particles; a cells digestive system.; Membranous
Enzymes that detoxify harmful substances in the cell.; Membranous
Catabolism; ATP synthesis, a cell's power plant..; Membranous
Houses the genetic code, in witch in turn dictates protein synthesis; therefore playing an essential role in other cells activities, namely, cell transport, metabolism, and growth..; Membranous
Site of Protein Synthesis. A cell's protein factories. NON-membranous
Destroys misfolded or otherwise abnormal proteins manufactured by the cell. " Quality control" for Protein Synthesis.
Supporting frame work of the cell and its organelles; function is cell movement.
Acts as the microtubule organizing center of the cell. Centrioles assist in the forming of microtubules.
Tiny Fingerlike extensions that increase a cell's absorptive surface area
Cilia and Flagella
Cilia move substances over the cell surface or detect changes outside the cell; flagella propel sperm cells.
site of formation of ribosome subunits
Where are ribosomes located?
Cytoplasm and Rough ER
- Cells break down
- Glucose ( C6H12O6)
- Nutrient that has been converted to glucose or one of its simpler products into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H20)
- Refer to page 105)
3 smaller pathways are chemically linked together to form the larger catabolic pathway known as cellular respiration
- Citric Acid Cycle
- Electron Transport System
You can't make ATP without
Carbondioxide is bi-product from
Anarobic Cellular Respiration
Requires less ATP
- Bi-product of ACR
- This is also the burn you feel during exercise.
Peroxisomes are found in the
Helps provide structure
Sperm -> Ovum -> Zygote
Male 23 -> Female 23 -> Baby 46
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