Mother and Baby

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  1. Gestation

    The period of development in the uterus from conception until birth (Pregnancy) 
  2. Gravida
    Indicates the number of times a mother has been pregnant, regardless of whether the pregnancies were carried to full term. A current pregnancy, if any is included into the count.
  3. Para
    Indicates the number of viable (>20 weeks) births. Pregnancies consisting of multiples, such as twins or triplets count as ONE pregnancy.
  4. Parity
    A woman who has born offspring who reached the age of viability.
  5. Having given birth
    The amount of times she has given birth either live or stillborn
  6. A grand multigravida
    A woman who has been pregnant 5 or more times irrespective of the outcome.
  7. A grand multipara
    A woman who has given birth 5 times or more.
  8. Still born
    Occurs when a fetus has died in the uterus. It is classified as a stillborn if it has reached a term of 20 weeks or more, or if it weighs 400g or more. 
  9. Termination
    After the 24th week, two doctors are required to agree it is appropriate based on the womans current and future physical, psychological and social circumstances.
  10. Viability
    The fetus become potentially able to live outside the mothers womb, with artificial aid is usually placed at about 28 weeks but may occur earlier, even at 24 weeks.
  11. Embryo
    Organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation from fertilisation to, in humans, after 8 weeks of pregnancy - then it is called a fetus.
  12. Placenta
    An organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elmination, and gas exchange via the mothers blood supply.
  13. First Trimester
    The first 12 weeks of pregnancy. The first two weeks are calculated as the first 2 weeks before contraception which include the woman's last period. 
  14. Second Trimester
    Weeks 13 - 28. most women feel energised and begin to put on weight as symptoms of morning sickness subside and eventually fade away
  15. Third Trimester 
    Weeks 29 onwards. Final weight gain takes place - which is the most weight gained throughout the pregnancy. The fetus will be growing at the most rapid pace during this stage, gaining up to 28g per day.
  16. Signs of Pregnancy
    amenorrhoea, morning sickness, frequent urination, increased skin pigmentation, breast changes, fatigue and drowsiness. Linea Nigra (dark line from symphysis to umbilicus), quickening (first fetal movements 16-20 weeks), Braxton Hicks Contractions (intermittent painless contractions of the uterus which occur more frequently toward the end of pregnancy)
  17.  Confirmation of Pregnancy

    •  Urine testing (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG),is produced by the trophoblast cells of the fertilised ovum (blastocyst). While HCG is a reliable marker of pregnancy, it cannot be detected until after implantation: this results in false negatives if the test is performed during the very early stages of pregnancy.
    • Obstetric ultrasonography
  18. Expected Date of Delivery (EDD)
    Pregnancy lasts approximately 266 days, or 38 weeks from the day of fertilization, but is considered clinically to last 280 days, or 40 weeks, from the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP). The EDD is usually calculated on the basis of 9⅓ calendar months, but if a woman is certain that coitus occurred only once during the month and if she knows the date on which it occurred, the EDD may be calculated as 38 weeks from that date.
  19. False Labour
    Braxton Hicks contractions may become very intense and uncomfortable , they may become fairly regular and exhausting
  20. Signs of Approaching Labour
    Fetal head engaged in the pelvis “lightening “, cervical secretions blood mucus accumulate in the cervical canal ( operculum ) show the cervix starts to dilate , rupture of membranes ,regular uterine contractions , possible diarrhoea, nausea, or vomiting causes unknown
  21. First stage of Labour
    The first stage begins with regular uterine contractions and ends with complete cervical dilatation at 10 cm.
  22. Second Stage of Labour
    begins with complete cervical dilatation and ends with the delivery of the fetus.
  23. Third stage of labour
    defined by the time period between the delivery of the fetus and the delivery of the placenta and fetal membranes.
  24. Episiotomy
    surgical incision made in the perineum, the area between the vagina and anus. Episiotomies are done during the second stage of labour to expand the opening of the vagina to prevent tearing of the area during the delivery of the baby. • Types of delivery • Normal vaginal delivery • Forceps • Vacuum • Caesarean section ( elective or emergency )
  25. Fundal
    the height of the fundus of the uterus, measured in centimetres from the top of the symphysis pubis to the highest point in the midline at the top of the uterus
  26. Perineum
    - A diamond-shaped area on the inferior surface of the trunk which includes the anus and, in females, the vagina. Its definition varies: it can refer to only the superficial structures in this region, or it can be used to include both superficial and deep structures.
  27. Apgar Score
    A score that assesses the general physical condition of a newborn infant by assigning a value of 0, 1, or 2 to each of five criteria: heart rate , respiratory effort, muscle tone, skin colour, and response to stimuli. The five scores are added together, with a perfect score being 10. Apgar scores are usually evaluated at one minute and five minutes after birth
  28. Fontanelle
    Master text styles • Second level • Third level • Fourth level • Fifth level Terminology • Fontanelle – It is a "soft spot" of the skull. The "soft spot" is soft precisely because the cartilage there has not yet hardened into bone between the skull bones. There are normally two fontanells, both in the midline of the skull, one (the anterior fontanelle) well in front of the other (the posterior fontanelle). The posterior fontanel closes first, at latest by the age of 8 weeks in a full-term baby. The anterior fontanelle closes at 18 months of age on the average but it can close normally as early as 9 months.
  29. Meconium
     Dark sticky material normally present in the intestine at birth and passed in the feaces after birth. The passage of meconium before birth can be a sign of fetal distress
  30. Premature
    A birth that takes place before 37 weeks of gestation have passed. Historically, the definition of prematurity was 2500 grams or less at birth
  31. Konakion
    Vitamin K is used to prevent and treat Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding (VKDB). This is when the newborn or older babies bleed excessively as the blood clotting system is not fully developed. Vitamin K works by reversing some of the causes of excessive bleeding
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Mother and Baby
Mother and Baby terminology
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