Colville Ch 8 9 10 notes

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Colville Ch 8 9 10 notes
2014-04-27 15:16:03
VTHT Anesthesia Surgery

Some terms and notes not found in PPT
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  1. This means pertaining to the soft internal organs
  2. This means pertaining to the wall of an organ or cavity
  3. This mean "ear"
  4. This means "flap"
  5. This structure gives the right ventricle additional support
    Moderator band
  6. This is the condition in which heart muscle cells in different areas contract independently of one another
    ventricular fibrillation
  7. This means out of place and is associated with fibrillations
    ectopic pacemakers
  8. This is large electric charge applied to the heart for a short duration to repolarize cardiac cells all at once so the SA node can resume  normal cardiac conduction
  9. How does the fetus receive oxygen?
    Through the placenta via the umbilical vein where exchange between maternal and fetal circulations
  10. This allow some blood to bypass the liver in a fetus.
    ductus venosus
  11. What two structures allow fetal blood to bypass the lung tissue
    • Foramen ovale (hole btw l/r atria)
    • Ductus arteriosus (hole btw PA & aorta)
  12. This refers to the stretch of the ventricular muscles that results in increase cardiac contraction
    Increased preload
  13. This refers to a result of lower blood pressure to fill the heart and the ventricles to not fill as completely
    decreased preload
  14. These two types of shock are due to dilatation of blood vessels in organs and tissues all at once
    • Septicemic shock
    • anaphylactic¬† shock
  15. The 3 layers of the artery from in to out:
    • endothelium
    • smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue
    • fibrous layer
  16. What type of tissue is blood?
    Connective tissue
  17. What are the 3 main functions of blood?
    • Transportation
    • Regulation
    • Defense
  18. This refers to the appearance being cloudy due to fat from digested food being suspended in the plasma.
    postprandial lipemia "after eating fat in blood"
  19. Name the granulocytes
    • Polymorphonucleocytes (segmented neutrophils)
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  20. Name the agranulocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
  21. All but which white blood cell originate in the bone marrow?
  22. This is the general term for production of all blood cells
  23. This is the term for the formation of red blood cells
  24. This is commonly seen when there is a loss of fluid from the blood.
    Relative polycythemia
  25. This is a rare bone disorder that causes in increased production of red blood cells
    Polycythemia rubra vera
  26. This is an increased number of white blood cells
  27. This is the production of thrombocytes (platelets)
  28. The stem cell for platelets
  29. The stem cell for all blood cells
    Pluripotent stem cells (PPSC)
  30. The hormone for erythropoiesis
  31. 3 Ways to classify white blood cells:
    Type of defense function: phagocytic or antibody production/immunity

    Shape of nucleus: polymorphonuclear, mononuclear or pleomorphic

    Cytoplasmic granule staining: granulocyte or agranulocyte
  32. Phagocytic white blood cells are:
    • segmented neutrophils (PMN)
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
    • monocytes
  33. WBC involved with antibody production and immunity
  34. Polymorphonuclear white blood cells
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  35. The only WBC with a single round nucleus
  36. The pleomorphic WBC is:
  37. This is the term for the formation of white blood cells
  38. 3 platelet functions:
    • maintenance of vascular integrity
    • Platelet plug formation
    • contribute to the process of fibrin formation to stabilize the hemostatic plug
  39. This is the term for the production of all granulocytes
  40. This is the condition that is caused by an abnormal proliferation of one of the white blood cell types and means "white blood"
  41. What substance does the neutrophil granule contain?
  42. This is the term for the process of aging
  43. This is an older segmented neutrophil characterized by more than 4 segments and has a reduced ability to phagocytize due to age
    Hypersegmented neutrophil
  44. This is the process by which neutrophils and other cells are attracted by inflammatory chemicals to the sight of injury
  45. This is the plasma protein that coats a microorganism to make it more recognizable to neutrophils
    opsonins (the process is call opsonization)
  46. These lymphocytes are processed in the thymus to recognize self and non-self proteins and are associated with cell-mediated immunity
  47. This is the term that gave the B-lymphocyte its name
    Bursa of Fabricius - a bird organ
  48. These lymphocytes are responsible for humoral immunity and become plasma cells when exposed to a recognized antigen
  49. These lymphocytes are neither T nor B cells that when they come into direct contact with an antigen and kill it
    Natural killer lymphocytes
  50. Name the lymphatic system components:
    • lymph nodes
    • spleen
    • thymus
    • tonsils
    • GALT (gut associated lymph tissue)
  51. 4 primary functions of the lymphatic system
    • remove excess tissue fluid
    • waste material transport
    • iltration of lymph
    • protein transport
  52. Which part of the lymph node contains the lymphocytes?
    The cortex
  53. What percentage of the intestinal mucosa and submucosa is made of lymphoid tissue?
    Over 25%