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Universal cultural aspects of human needs:
The Three Planes
- 1. Personal Plane - Persons lens of analysis; Reflecting
- 2. Interpersonal Plane - Individual's view involving others
- 3. Community/institutional Plane - What society thinks
- Stage-like, universally applicable manner, independent of their contexts
- Take information and mold into our own understanding
Do we all go through development at the same rate?
- Today: no
- Before: all children are alike
- Piaget was too quick to conclude that we develop the same
What researchers need to know
- The influence of contexts on development
- Ex: Kids who start language age 1 - biology or context?
- What has persisted within early childhood education
- Ex: Freud, Piaget, Vygotsky had different views
- Other areas of education such as mathematics education and science education
- Ex: Something we taught adolescence only because we thought they were ready at the time
Researchers have a deficit view of many children, particularly those who have...
not yet reached a specific "universal" developmental milestone, or those whose life experiences do not match those of the dominant culture
Children's participation in cultural activities with the guidance of more skilled partners
Allows children to internalize the tools for thinking and for taking more mature approaches to problem solving that children have practiced in social context
Vygotsky believes cultural inventions channel the skills of each generation, with individual development mediated by...
interaction with people who are more skilled in the use of the culture's tools
Learning occurs as a result of the moving of ____________ to ______________.
Learning occurs as a result of the moving of external, social activity to internal, individual functioning
Vygotsky described psychological tools as those that can be used to direct the mind and behavior:
Language, different kinds of numbering and counting, writing schemes, mnemonic technical aids, algebraic symbol systems, art works, diagrams, maps, drawings, and all sorts of signs
Sociocultural View: Tools
- Tools simply assist in the development of mental processes (e.g., getting children involved in cooking)
- Tools essentially shape and transform children (e.g., if child involved in cooking, may want to think of that to cook next time)
- Tools mediate social and individual functioning (e.g., role of mother, father, child in society)
- Tools connect the external, the internal, the social, and the individual (when we expose children to cultural tools, they internalize it)
Personal Plane's focus of analysis
- Relationship between child and immediate caregiver
- Attention goes beyond simply what this child "knows" or can do
- Children transform their understanding of and responsibility for activities through their own involvement in those activities
Interpersonal planes focus of analysis
- Relationship between child and each member (e.g., teacher grandparents, siblings)
- Contextual or community factors
- E.g., the books, stories, writing and perhaps the teddy bear, as well as psychological mental tools, seating arrangements, and other less visual but important factors
- Such as the forms of: communication used within this context,
- The genres of conversation, codes of behavior
- The skills and ways of learning emphasized
- The value placed by the community or institution on this type of activity
Community Plane's focus of analysis
- Role in community
- Trilogy of the personal, interpersonal and community or contextual factors can present a more complex and thorough picture of children's understanding
- Around 3-years old
- Don't know scientific info
- Ex: Child states that rain is man-made or from God
- 5-years old
- Understand science but also think about God
- Ex: Rain comes from clouds, which are indirectly related somehow to man or God
Natural processes stage
- In school
- Science behind it
- Children use numerous explanations that have been learned
Cognitive development of children is intrinsically interrelated with...
their participation in sociocultural activities
What can assist children's thinking and enable them to stay "on task" for considerable periods of time?
- Direct experiences
- Topics and issues taught at school or home
- Shared understandings
- Tools and artifacts (television, books, songs, crayons, contextually relevant beliefs, and ways of behaving, counting)
- Provides the opportunity to question some of these "accepted" ways of thinking about children
- It broadens the focus from the individual child as a unit of analysis to include 3 interrelated stories (personal, interpersonal, and community/contextual)
- If presents a more authentic, complex and thorough picture of their understandings
Babies acquire language through...
actually using it, not through practicing.
Oral language is learned ___________ (as an aspect of doing something else). Therefore, written language is best learned ___________.
Oral language is learned "incidentally" (as an aspect of doing something else). Therefore, written language is best learned "incidentally".
When a baby starts babbling, what language is that?
- Crying (first tool at birth)
- Hunger, pain, stress, and boredom
- Pre-linguistic language (2 months)
- Babbling - Gets baby ready for language
- Holophrases - 1 word sentences
- Telegraphic speech - more than 1 word together
- Symbolic thoughts
What is language?
- Used to represent and communicate information, ideas, and feeling
- A code
- A shared system of symbols
- Shared, rule-governed system of symbolic communication
- A specific time when an event, or its absence, has the greatest impact on development
- Time when an organism is most likely to be influenced by a specific event
- Ex: Rubella has a disastrous impact if it is contracted during the first trimester of a pregnancy, yet has hardly any impact if contracted later in a pregnancy
- Times in an organism's development when: a particular experience (or lack of it) has a more pronounced effect on development
- Learning a second language
Learning theory - Skinner (1957)
Observation, imitation, and reinforcement
Nativism - Chomsky (1959)
- Belief in biological cause of development
- Language acquisition device
- Mechanism that enables the brain to infer linguistic rules from the language they hear
- A language acquisition device is like a specialized organ for language learning
Set of linguistic rules that govern the structure, position, and sequence of speech sounds
- The basic units of sound in an infant's native language
- In English language, the sound "ch"
- Ex: the "d" sound in "dog"
- The sound of /t/
- Infants of one month of age can distinguish phonemes
Set of linguistic rules that govern the makeup of words
- The smallest unit of expression that cannot be broken down into smaller units without destroying its meaning
- Ex: "-ing"
- Set of linguistic rules that govern sentence structure
- Jeremy, an English-speaking child, understands that most sentences that make statements follow a subject-verb-object order
The reason children's sentences such as "I runned home" are informative in understanding children's language acquisition is that they suggest children are familiar with some grammar rules but often misapply them
Possible reasons for delayed language development
- Cognitive limitation
- History of otitis media
- -Delayed language development
- Problems in fast mapping
- An approach to teaching English as a second language is which instruction is presented only in English
- In a study of approaches to second-language education this method was least effective
Antonio, a native Spanish speaker, attends a school where he is taught in both English and Spanish. He first learns Spanish along with other children who are also native Spanish speakers. Eventually, he will be transferred to regular classes in English
Two-way or dual-language learning
Josie is in a classroom in which there are both English-speaking and Spanish-speaking children. Josie and her classmates learn together in Spanish and in English.