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What are the Central lymphoid organs ?
What are the peripheral lymph organs ?
- Solitary nodules
- Peyer's Patches (of Ileum)
What mediates "Cellular Immunity "
What mediates "Humoral Immunity " ?
What does white pulp consist of ?
It is lymphoid tissue that ensheaths central arteries and the lymphoid nodule appended to sheaths .
What does red pulp consist of ?
- Venus sinuses and pulp cords
- A reticular network with
- Reticular Cells
- Blood Cells
What is the function of spleen ?
- Production of Lymphocytes
- Destruction of Erythrocytes / Defense of the Organism
In terms of the Anatomy of the lymph node
What is the trabecula ?
What is the sub-capsular sinus ?
What is the medullary sinus
- -Connective Tissue
- -Loose network of macrophages , reticular cells and fibers
- -Capillary like structures
In terms of the Anatomy of the lymph node ?Where do the afferent lymph vessels enter ?Where do the efferent vessels leave ?
- around the convex surface
- leave through out the hilus
Where are the most lymph nodules located ?
in the cortex
What leaves through the post capillary venules ?
What is the purpose of the lymph nodes ?
- Filter lymph
- Produce lymphocytes
- Respond to foreign substances
Do primary nodules have a clear region and are they exposed to antigens ?
What is the clear zone called in secondary nodules ? What is there a collection of in the secondary nodules ?
What is the organization of lymph nodes ?
Lymphoid cells , Reticular C.T , Reticular fibers , Reticular cells , macrophages
what is the distribution of lymph nodules ?
Tonsils , spleen , lamina propria of the G.I. , Lamina propria of the respiratory system
Where is the concentration of material in a reactive nodule ?
- Germinal Center
- Mantle layer -lymphocytes form a cap to one side
Where and what are Peyer's patches ?
Aggregates of lymph nodes in Lamina Propria in the terminal ileum
Are there lymph nodes in the appendix ?
What is the Waldeyer's ring ?
What does tonsils look like anatomically ?
epithelially lined crypts that produce lymphocytes.
What do palatine tonsils look like ?
-Stratified squamous epithelium with deep crypts
-It has a well defined basal C.T capsule
-Pure mucous glands deep to capsule
What does the lingual tonsil look like ?
Shallow crypts with stratified squamous epithelial tissue.
What does pharyngeal tonsil look like ?
It has pseudostratified columnar ciliated squamous
high lymphocyte infiltration
Where can Hassall's corpuscles be found ? Does it stain dark or light ?
Where do vessels enter the thymus ? are the thymus capillaries fenestrated ? Is there a thick or thin basal lamina ?
Through the capsule
thick basal lamina
How do T-cells get to the the Thymus ?
undifferentiated T-cells come from the bone marrow and enter the blood to the thymus
What are the hormones that act on the Thymus ?
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone
- Male and female sex hormones
- Protein growth hormones
What is the dual embryonic origin of the Thymus ?
epithelial and mesodermal
What cells can be found in the cortex ? what type of fibers make up the cortex ? does it stain light or dark ?
Explain the T-Cell pathway to Killer T-cells
Bone Marrow > T-Lymphocyte > Thymus > Lymhp nodes and spleen activated spleen > Lymphokines (acitvate macrophage) > Killer T cells
Explain the B-Cell pathway ?
Bone Marrow > Antigen contact >Plasma Cell >Antibody > (Neutrilization , Antigen Antibody complex , Complementation Osmotic lysis)