Family of oxidase negative Gram-negative bacteria which can be pathogenic
Characteristics of Enteric bacilli:
-Gram-negative coccobacilli or bacilli
-Normal flora of the GI tract
-Cause enteritis and gastroenteritis from fecally contaminated meat, raw vegetables or water
-May cause pneumonia, infection of any organ or tissue
-May lead to death due to kidney failure
Name 6 common enteric bacilli:
Gram-negative bacteria that ferment lactose to gas and are found in the intestinal tracts of animals and humans.
What is E. coli O157:H7?
A sub-type of E. coli
Strain of E. coli that in unique in that it produces a powerful toxin that can cause illness.
The numbers represent genetic markers found on its surface to distinguish it from other E. coli
How is E. coli spread?
Comes from the intestines of healthy cattle
Get mixed into the ground beef during slaughter or through the cow's udders during milking.
Swimming or drinking sewage contaminated water
Through diarreal stools of infected persons due to improper hygiene.
What illness does E. coli O157:H7 cause?
Severe diarrhea and abdominal cramps.
How is E. coli O157:H7 infection diagnosed?
Detection of the bacterium in stool
How is E. Coli O157:H7 treated?
There is no specific treatment. Recovery can take 5-10 days.
Antibiotics are not proven to relieve symptoms.
What are the long term consequences of E. Coli O157:H7?
Usually there is full recovery.
About 1/3 of those with hemolytic uremic syndrome have abnormal kidney functions for many years later.
What can be done to prevent the infection of E. coli O157:H7?
Better preventative measures in meat processing.
Reducing the number of cattle that have the bacterium
What can individuals do to prevent E. coli O157:H7 infections? (7)
-cook all meat thoroughly
-separate raw foods from ready to eat foods
-drink only pasteurized milk, juice or cider
-wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly
-drink properly treated municipal water
avoid swallowing lake or pool water while swimming
-make sure those with diarrhea wash hand thoroughly and practice good hygiene.
What is the causative agent for typhoid fever and what is its shape and gram stain reaction.
Causative agent is Salmonella typhi.
It is a Gram-negative bacilli
List two uncommon areas where the Typhoid fever organism will survive:
Fresh water and freezing temperatures.
How is Typhoid fever transmitted?
Fecally contaminated food or water.
If a person is a carrier, which internal body organ is most likely to be inhabited by Typhoid?
How many bacilli must be ingested to initiate an infection of Typhoid?
What is the causative agent, bacterial shape and Gram stain reaction for Cholera?
Vibrio cholera is the causative agent.
It stains Gram-negative and is a curved (comma shaped) bacilli w/ a single flagella
How is Cholera transmitted?
Fecally contaminated food or water.
Which groups of individuals are most likely to develop Cholera?
Those who eat shellfish from off the Gulf of Mexico
What is "rice water stool" associated with Cholera?
Secretory diarrhea containing flecks of mucus.
How much fluid may be lost during an infection of Cholera?
1 liter per hour in severe cases.
What are the symptoms of Typhoid fever? (7)
-Loss of appetite
What are the symptoms of Cholera? (3)
Humans are the sole host:
Diseases include septicemia, UTI's, neonatal meningitis, gastroenteritis, HUS and acute pyelonephritis:
Escherichia coli (E. coli)
Symptoms: Appear 4-8 hours after ingestion and last 2-7 days, non-bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, myalgia, headache, fever and abdominal cramps.
May enter blood causing bacteremia and other infections.
Salmonella food poisoning.
What is another name for negative shock?
Endotoxin shock. Also called septic shock, bacteremic shock.
Why is endotoxin shock so serious?
The the death rate is high: 50-80% death rate.
What are other names for Salmonella food poisoning? (3)