ABS Exam 2 (3-osteichthyes)

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ABS Exam 2 (3-osteichthyes)
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2014-03-03 16:03:31
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  1. Osteichthyes (teleost)
    most species rich and morphologically diverse
  2. Shared derived characters of Osteichthyes
    • Swim bladder (universal character)
    • Lateral line
    • Ossification of endoskeleton
    • Usually covered by overlapping scales
    • Fin webs supported by bony dermal rays
  3. Swim bladder Modified to become ___ in Sarcopterygians
    Modified to become ___ in Actinopterygians
    • lungs
    • a buoyancy organ
  4. 2 Major Groups of Osteichthyes
    • Actinopterygii (Ray-finned Fishes) Covering of scales derived from enamel (ganoine)
    • Sarcopterygii (Lobe-finned Fishes) Covering of scales derived from dentine (cosmine)
  5. Largest radiation of vertebrates
    Actinopterygii
  6. Derived characters of Actinopterygian
    • Brain enlargement (evert cerebral hemispheres)
    • Nearly symmetrical upper and lower caudal fins
    • Fin membrane supported by fewer bony rays(flexibility)
    • Jaw bone and muscle arrangement produced quick jaw action, but low force
  7. two types of actinopterygian
    • paleonisciformes
    • neopterygii
  8. paleonisciformes
    • Survivors: Paddlefish, Sturgeon, Bichirs
    • Spiracle, body support by notochord, mostly cartilaginous skeleton
    • Mostly Heterocercal caudal fin
  9. Neopterygii:
    • Many morphologies, many habitats
    • Changes is skull, jaw, feeding musculature
    • Body support by vertebrae (replaced notochord)
    • Mostly Homocercal caudal fin
  10. Actinopterygii -> Paleonisciformes -> ___
    • Polypteriformes
    • Acipenseriformes
  11. polypteriformes
    • Ganoid scales all over body
    • Fleshy pectoral fins 
    • Rudimentary lungs – use when inpoorly oxygenated water
    • Larvae have external gills
    • Nocturnal
  12. Actinopterygii -> ___
    • Neopterygii
    • newjaw mechanism
  13. Actinopterygii -> Neopterygii -> Teleost
    • Jaw with short maxilla
    • Hypomandibulla
    • Increased volume of oral chamber and powerful suction
    • Gill cover
    • Cranium
  14. Teleost jaw
    • Expansion of orobranchial chamber: operculum became connected to mandible --> aided in opening the mouth
    • Anterior articulated end of maxilla developed ball-and socket joint --> pointed maxilla’s teeth forward to help grasp prey; increased suction
  15. Jaw Protrusion and Suction Feeding
    • Mobility
    • Ligamentous attachments - allow sliding of premaxilla ontop of cranium without dislocation
  16. Teleost fin specializations
    • Homocercal caudal fin - horizontal swimming without using paired fins
    • Paired fins - gathering food, courtship,walking, flying
  17. Why so many species of ray-finned fishes?
    • Many aquatic habitats
    • Isolation – greater diversification when isolated
  18. Teleost examples
    • Osteoglossomorpha
    • Elopomorpha
    • Clupeomorpha
    • Euteleostei
  19. Sarcopterygii
    • Fleshy paired fins
    • Covering of scales derived from dentine (cosmine)
    • Cylindrical shape
    • Heterocercal caudal fin
    • Massive jaw muscles
  20. Sarcopterygii --> ___ (Lungfishes)
    • Dipnoi
    • Lack articulated tooth-bearing jaws, autostylic jaw suspension
    • Dorsal, caudal, anal fins fused into 1 continuous fin
    • Caudal fin changed from heterocercal to homocercal
    • Some larvae have external gills
    • Adults have lungs
    • Teeth scattered over palate and fused into tooth ridges
    • Adductor muscles for lower jaw
    • Durophagus – feed on hard foods
    • African lungfishes will aestivate (drying habitats, inactivity in summer)
    • Partially divided atria and ventricle
  21. Sarcopterygii --> ___ (coelacanths)
    • Actinistians
    • Live in deep water
    • tapetum lucidum
    • Rostral organ in snout – electroreceptor
    • Viviparous
    • 2 extant Latimeria species
    • Fin webs – originating from lobes (muscular bases), except for 1st dorsal fin
    • Symmetrical 3-lobed tail with central fleshy lobe
    • Lack maxilla
  22. Locomotion in Water
    • Downward pull of gravity
    • Drag of water
  23. sharks locomotion in water
    Pectoral fins and oily liver
  24. teleosts locomotion in water
    Swim bladder
  25. Viscous or Frictional Drag
    • Drag from water moving over the surface
    • Reduced by lowering SA : Vol ratio and smoothness of body
  26. Inertial Drag
    • Pressure differences created by the displacement of water
    • Low at slow speeds but increases rapidly with speed
    • Reduced by lowering Vol : SA ratio
  27. ___ (tear drop) shape is a compromise
    • Fusiform
    • width to length ratios (d/l) of 0.25
  28. Undulations
    • Backward force
    • Lateral force (cancel each other)
    • Overall force = forward
  29. Undulation types 3:
    • Anguilliform (eel-like, 3 points of contact)
    • Carangiform
    • Ostraciiform (inflexible body, Undulation limited to caudal fin)
  30. Actinopterygian Reproduction
    • Most reproductive diversity than any other vertebrate
    • Most are oviparous
    • Some have “parental care” – attachment to substrate, guarding ofeggs (in mouth, pouch), construction of nest
  31. Freshwater Teleosts (Actinopterygian) reproduction:
    • small number of eggs that are yolk-rich
    • Attachment is important so don’t float away to unsuitable habitat
  32. Marine Teleosts (Actinopterygian) reproduction
    • large numbers of eggs
    • Planktonic eggs and larvae
    • buoyant and transparent
    • External fertilization: drift in open sea
    • Small larvae with little yolk supply
  33. Advantages for planktonic eggs and larvae
    • Fewer predators in open sea
    • High biological productivity at surface
    • Better chances of colonization in large area
  34. ___ and ___ are opposite reproductive patterns
    • Protandry - first male
    • Protogyny - first female
  35. Hermaphroditism
    mostly fertilize others and not self
  36. Ocean Life Zones
    • Epipelagic (0-100 m - photosynthesis limit)
    • Mesopelagic
    • Bathypelagic
  37. pattern as the the depth of ocean increases
    • Food decreases
    • Fish diversity, abundance, size decrease
    • Greater diversity under high productivity regions (coasts)
  38. Mesopelagic Fishes
    • Undertake diel vertical migrations (surface at night, depth during day).
    • Deep Scattering Layer = sonar reflections of fish and invertsthat migrate vertically
    • Isolume = changing light intensity
  39. Bathypelagic fishes
    • Little (or no) vertical migration
    • Less active - Less density of bone, Less skeletal muscle
    • Efficient visual pigments forabsorbing blue light
    • Photophores = organs that emitblue light; symbiotic bacteria, Attract prey, Find mates
  40. who has photophores and function?
    • Bathypelagic fishes
    • organs that emitblue light; symbiotic bacteria, Attract prey, Find mates
  41. deep sea fishes
    • Large teeth, jaws, mouth, extending gut
    • Scent trails for attracting mates
    • Large olfactory organs in males
    • Some males attach like parasites
    • Fertilized eggs rise to surface
    • Hatch, metamorphose, startdescent
  42. Coral Reefs
    • High diversity
    • Periods of isolation
    • Day/Night shifts
  43. coral reefs Threats
    • corals grow very slowly
    • Climate change
    • Pollution
    • Aquarium fish collection
    • Native/introduced predators

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