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Is HIV an acute or chronic disease?
HIV is a chronic disease
What is homeostasis?
The maintenance of a steady state within a body
What is remission?
the period of a chronic disease when sign and symptoms subside
What is exacerbation?
the period of time when sign and symptoms recur in all their severity.
Why is looking at risk factors for diseases so
may not prevent disease, but it reduces the chances of developing disease
Remission and exacerbation occur in which disease type?
leukimia and ulcerative colitis
Which of the following is the best brief definition
· functional disequilibrium
· having a fever
· feeling ill,
· fatigue and weight loss?
What is a syndrome?
combination of symptoms and sign
Mary's signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis diminished following medical treatment. Shortly after treatment, her signs and symptoms returned with greater severity. Mary experienced which phenomenon?
Which term means the determination of the nature of a disease?
What is the best definition for epidemiology?
is the study of the occurrence, transmission, distribution and control of disease
What best defines a complication of a disease?
a complication is a disease or other abnormal state that develops in a person already suffering from a disease.
Which of the following best describes homeostasis:
· regulation of blood pH near 7.35
·maintaining temperature at 37 degree Celsius
· elevation of BP during exercise and lowering of BP during sleep
All of them
The events leading to the development of a disease is known as?
What is the difference between a sign, symptom and
Sign-the objective evidence of disease observed on physical examinations, such as abnormal pulse or fever.
Symptom- A indication of disease perceived by the patient, such as pain, dizziness and itching.
Sequela - the after math of a particular disease, such as permanent damage to the heart after rheumatic fever.
etiology - the cause of a disease
pathology- study of the characteristics, cause and effects of disease
physiology -study of the function of the body
immunology-Immunology is a branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms
- Anatomy- study of the normal structure of the body.
Definition of a lesion?
an abnormal tissue structure or function. may be the result of a wound, injury or pathology injury.
What procedure extracts tissue for a microscopic exam?
Assign sign or symptom to the following:
· sore throat
· yellow patches on the tonsils
- sore throat· symptom
- yellow patches on the tonsils· sign
- fever · symptom
- redness· sign
- tiredness sign
A patient presents with signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection, which lab test would be done first?
What steps are taken in making a diagnosis?
physical examination, sign symptoms patient history cc.interview
A treatment is classified as a medical treatment if it involves…..?
Which term means the predicted outcome of disease?
The determination of the cause of disease is the….?
Morbidity- the number who become sick or disabled from a disease per , 100,000 within a population.
· Prevalence- the number of existing cases of a disease
· incidence- the number of a new cases of a disease in a population.
- · Mortality-the number of people who die from a disease per 100,000 who have a disease within a population.
Characteristics of active immunity
protection produced by the persons own immune system
How does a person develop active immunity?
produce by antibodies that develop in response to antigens
What may be used to produce a vaccine?
passive immunity toxoid. whole agents vaccines use organisms that have been killed.
Which immune cells are responsible for a more potent and rapid response during subsequent exposures to the same antigen?
b lymphocytes -memory cells.
Characteristics and treatment of fever
increse of body temperature.
IgE is involved in which disease process?
Which cells bind with IgE?
plasma cells--mast cells
What therapy is used for anaphylaxis?
the most vital therapy for systemic anaphylaxis is prompt intramuscular injection of epinephrine adrenalin epi-pen
The allergic response to tree or grass pollen is an example of which type of hypersensitivity?
When tissue comes in contact with an allergen,which reactions can be expected?
- - release of histamine
- -production of the antibodies'-dilation of blood vessels.
What substance is injected in an allergy shot?
a small amount of the offending allergen are administered and concentrations are gradually increase.
Parenteral disease transmission
means through the skin as with cuts or punctures (disease causing organisms transferred through contact with blood or body fluid.
What type of hypersensitivity is produced by bee venom, foods or pollen?
What is characteristic of a systemic hypersensitiveresponse that produces anaphylaxis?
massive release of histamine
Incompatible blood transfusion causes which type ofhypersensitivity?
Nucleic acid analogues are used in the treatment of______?____ infections.
Fungal bacterial infections
A disease caused by a virus is what classification of disease?
Lupus Erythematosus is classified as which type of disease?
chronic autoimmune disease
Which type of lupus is limited to the skin?
Which cells of the immune system can destroy cancer cells?
natural killer cells type of white blood cells leukocytes
What is the cause of immune system damage in AIDS?
human immunodificiency virus
How may HIV be spread?
- -breast milk-vaginal secretion
- -sexual contact
- -shared hypodermic needles.
Which immune cells are associated with humoral immunity?
b lymphocytes -b cells
Resistance of the skin to invading organisms is what type of immunity?
Which cells are associated with the production of antibodies?
Which cells kill cancer cells and other abnormal cells?
cytotoxic t lymphocytes
What type of leukocyte recognizes body cells with abnormal membranes?
natural killer cells.
Which cells respond rapidly during a secondary immune response?
What are the signs and symptoms of inflammation?
Characteristics of bacteria
they don't have a nucleus
Name of the different shaped bacteria
- spherical round cells=cocciro-shaped cellls=bracili
- spiral shaped cells=spirilla
- corkscrew- shaped=spirochetes
- coma shaped cells=vibrios
Which bacteria commonly cause skin infections?
infections with helminths are often called__________?
Rubeola virus causes which disease
People who harbor an infectious agent but do not have signs and symptoms are called?
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics has produces resistant strains of which pathogen?
multidrug -resistant pathogen
Bacteria that do not fit well into the shape and Gramstain pattern include the?
Bacterial structures that form in response to harshenvironmental conditions are called?
Reservoirs for pathogens are?
Single-celled or multicelled organisms with cell walls that contain chitin are called__________.?
What is quarantining?
a strict isolation imposed to prevent the spread of disease.
Exposure to asbestos increases the risk for cancer of the membranes of many internal organs and is commonly known as __________?
A cancer of fibrous connective tissue is called a (n)__________?
Greater than 90% of esophageal cancer is attributed to __________?
Is the prognosis and treatment of cancer is affected by nutrition, chronic disease and stage of the cancer?
affected by all of them
Hodgkin's disease is associated with the
epstein barr virus and hiv but mainly ebv
Cancer of the sympathetic nervous system that consists of immature embryonic like cells is known as a _______?
A cancer-related checkup is recommended every_____?_____ year(s) by the American Cancer
for individuals 20-30 every 3 yr
Life expectancy for men who are surgical candidates for prostate cancer is?
greater then 10 yr
Amoeboid move by means of cell membrane extensions called?
What type of disease transmission moves directlyfrom an infected individual to a susceptible individual?
A renal tumor that is composed of cells that
resemble embryonic glomeruli is known as __________.?
More than _____?_____% of all cancers in the UnitedStates occur in adults over the age of 65.
The ____?______ encodes for proteins that regulatecell growth and differentiation.
Headaches are common in brain tumors when the cancer infiltrates the blood, meninges or lymph?
Deaths from cancer are projected to rise to_____?_____ million in 2015.
The most common childhood cancer is?
Surgical treatments for breast cancer include mastectomy and __________?
Which diagnostic method is used to determine if adisease is hereditary?
Stress causes an increased production of which hormone?