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How are chromosomes made?
Cell prepares to divide, chromatids coil up to form chromosomes! (visible w/ microscope on stained cell)
State what each cell wall is made of, of these following organisms:
Fungi- Cell wall made of chitin
Paramecium- NO cell wall (protozoa)
Bacteria- Cell wall made of peptidoglycan
Plant cell- Cell wall made of Cellulose
What is the Large Central Vacuole? Location?
- -break down of waste
- -hydrolysis or macromolecules
- (enlargement of vac. is major mechanism of plant growth)
- -fond in PLANT CELLS!
Name the part of the central Vacuole (in plant cell) and their function.
- Cell Sap( solution in the vacuole, carries inorganic molecules such as K and Cl
-Tonoplast (Barrier around vacuole)
Golgi Apparatus is what? location?
- -Sorts, Packages and secretes things that are synthesized such as lipids, proteins..etc.
- -Found in both animal and plant cells
What are the the main parts of the Golgi Apparatus? (Describe)
- -Cisternae : flattened membranous sacs
- -Cis face : near ER (receiving side)
- -Trans face : Gives rise to vesicle, that pinch off and travel to other sites (shipping side)
What are the steps of the Golgi Apparatus (6)?
- 1- vesicles from ER move to Golgi
- 2-vesicles coalesce to form new cis cisternae
- 3-cisternal maturation- move cis to trans direction
- 4-vesicles form and leave, which carry products to other locations or to cell membrane for secretion
- 5-vesicles transport some proteins back to mature golgi where they function
- 6- Vesicles ALSO transport certain proteins back to ER their site of function.
What are Vesicles?
-Membrane enclosed chambers
What accounts for more than half of the membranes in the Eukaryotic cell?
What is ER made up of?
- -interconnected tubules, flattened sacs called cisternae
- -cisternal space is called lumen
What is the Cytoskeleton? Where is it found?
- Reinforces cell shape and movement ability
- Made up of Protein Fiber ( Microfilament, Intermediate Filaments, Microtubles)
What three fibers make up the the Cytoskeleton? What are they made of? What size are they?
- MicroFilaments: Made of Actin (thinnest size)
- Intermediate Filaments: Made of Keratin (medium size)
- MicroTubles: Made of Tublin (thickest)
What is the Nuclear Lamina?
- The SHAPE of the nucleus is maintained by Nuclear Lamina.
- Made up of Proteins
What is the Endomembrane System and it's components?
-System that regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell
- Nuclear Envelope
- Golgi Apparatus
- Vesicles, Vacuoles
- Plasma Membrane
What is the Process for Endomembrane System?
- 1- Nuclear Envelope is connected to S-ER and R-ER
- 2-Membranes and Proteins made by ER flow in the from of transport vesicles to the Golgi
- 3-Golgi Pinches off vesicles which give rise to lysosomes and other vesicles and vacuoles.
- 4- Lysosome is available for fusion with another vesicle
- 5- Trans vesicle carries proteins to Cell Membrane
- 6-Cell Membrane expands by fusion, proteins are secreted by cell