Bio Chapter 6 (#2)

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Bio Chapter 6 (#2)
2014-03-03 20:34:25
Bio 181
chap 6
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  1. How are chromosomes made?
    Cell prepares to divide, chromatids coil up to form chromosomes! (visible w/ microscope on stained cell)
  2. State what each cell wall is made of, of these following organisms:

    Plant Cell
    Fungi- Cell wall made of chitin

    Paramecium- NO cell wall (protozoa)

    Bacteria- Cell wall made of peptidoglycan

    Plant cell- Cell wall made of Cellulose
  3. What is the Large Central Vacuole? Location?
    • -break down of waste
    • -stores 
    • -hydrolysis or macromolecules
    • (enlargement of vac. is major mechanism of plant growth)
    • -fond in PLANT CELLS!
  4. Name the part of the central Vacuole (in plant cell) and their function.
    - Cell Sap( solution in the vacuole, carries inorganic molecules such as K and Cl

    -Tonoplast (Barrier around vacuole)
  5. Golgi Apparatus is what? location?
    • -Sorts, Packages and secretes things that are synthesized such as lipids, proteins..etc. 
    • -Found in both animal and plant cells

  6. What are the the main parts of the Golgi Apparatus? (Describe)
    • -Cisternae : flattened membranous sacs
    • -Cis face : near ER (receiving side)
    • -Trans face : Gives rise to vesicle, that pinch off and travel to other sites (shipping side)
  7. What are the steps of the Golgi Apparatus (6)?
    • 1- vesicles from ER move to Golgi
    • 2-vesicles coalesce to form new cis cisternae
    • 3-cisternal maturation- move cis to trans direction
    • 4-vesicles form and leave, which carry products to other locations or to cell membrane for secretion
    • 5-vesicles transport some proteins back to mature golgi where they function
    • 6- Vesicles ALSO transport certain proteins back to ER their site of function.

  8. What are Vesicles?
    -Membrane enclosed chambers
  9. What accounts for more than half of the membranes in the Eukaryotic cell?
    The ER!
  10. What is ER made up of?
    • -interconnected tubules, flattened sacs called cisternae 
    • -cisternal space is called lumen
  11. What is the Cytoskeleton? Where is it found?
    • Reinforces cell shape and movement ability
    • Made up of Protein Fiber  ( Microfilament, Intermediate Filaments,  Microtubles)
  12. What three fibers make up the the Cytoskeleton? What are they made of? What size are they?
    • MicroFilaments: Made of Actin (thinnest size)
    • Intermediate Filaments: Made of Keratin (medium size)
    • MicroTubles: Made of Tublin (thickest)

  13. What is the Nuclear Lamina?
    • The SHAPE of the nucleus is maintained by Nuclear Lamina.
    • Made up of Proteins
  14. What is the Endomembrane System and it's components?
    -System that regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell


    • Nuclear Envelope
    • ER
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Lysosomes
    • Vesicles, Vacuoles
    • Plasma Membrane
  15. What is the Process for Endomembrane System?
    • 1- Nuclear Envelope is connected to S-ER and R-ER
    • 2-Membranes and Proteins made by ER flow in the from of transport vesicles to the Golgi
    • 3-Golgi Pinches off vesicles which give rise to lysosomes and other vesicles and vacuoles.
    • 4- Lysosome is available for fusion with another vesicle
    • 5- Trans vesicle carries proteins to Cell Membrane
    • 6-Cell Membrane expands by fusion, proteins are secreted by cell