ABS Exam 2 (4 - living on land)

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  1. Amniotic Egg
    • Reproduce via internal fertilization
    • Fertilized egg is encased in an amniotic egg
    • Protects the young from dehydration and injury
  2. Different demands on land than in water
    • Less viscous
    • Less dense
    • Higher O2 level
    • Gravity has greater effect on land
  3. Specific Challenges of Terrestrial Existence: Support
    • Increase in bone mass
    • Change in overall structure of skeleton – limbs articulate with spine via girdles
  4. Bone Structure
    • Strong but light
    • Amniotes: Concentric layers of bone around blood vessels (Haversian Canal)
  5. Joints
    • Cancellous bone enclosed in joint capsule
    • Synovial fluid (lubrication)
    • Cartilage on ends (friction)
  6. Zygapophyses
    • articulating surfaces that resisttorsion and compression
    • Similar to suspension bridge
  7. Important changes in Tetrapod
    • Snout length
    • Mode of reproduction
    • Neck, pectoral girdle free from head Respiratory (lungs and trachea) 
    • Vertebrae differentiation
    • Attachment pelvic girdle to column 
    • Form of limbs
    • Epaxial and Hypaxial muscles 
    • Presence of urinary bladder
  8. function of Axial Muscles in fish is side to side bending but in tetrapods:
    • Postural support
    • Lung ventilation
    • Locomotion
  9. Important hypaxial muscles in Amniotes:
    • Transversus abdominus
    • Costal muscles --> inhalation and exhalation
    • Rectus abdominus – mostly postural role
  10. Vertebrae differentiation
    • cervical - Up/down and side/side movement of neck
    • trunk - Thoracic (ribs), lumbar (lost ribs in mammals)
    • sacral - Fused with pelvic girdle
    • caudal - tail
  11. Development of Neck in Tetrapods. Loss of ___ --> ___ not connected to head
    • opercular bone
    • Pectoral girdle
  12. Appendicular Skeleton - Limb and limb girdle
    • Pectoral, pelvic fins derived from fishes (ray-like structure)
    • Pelvic girdle fused to sacral vertebrae (3 paired bones on each side)
    • Pectoral girdle, forelimb forms tripod of support (and girdle free from dermal skull)
  13. Energetically more expensive than in water:
  14. Primitive locomotion:
    Axial flexion of body -> uses trunk muscles, not limb muscles
  15. Isometric Scaling
    changes in size do not result in changes in proportion (1:1 ratio)
  16. Negative Allometry
    smaller as animal gets larger(e.g. metabolic rate, respiration)
  17. Positive Allometry
    larger as animal gets larger(e.g. skeletal mass)
  18. Eating on Land
    • jaws and teeth
    • Derived tetrapods have palate fused to braincase
    • tongue and hyoid apparatus
    • Salivary glands for swallowing
  19. Breathing on Land
    • Less dense, more O2 in air
    • Tidal respiration
    • Movement of ribs – negative pressure in abdominal cavity
  20. Why don't gills work on land?
    lose surface area by collapsing
  21. Circulatory System
    • High blood pressure
    • Thick-walled muscular heart
    • Valves in veins – resist backflow
    • Separation of oxygenated (arterial) and deoxygenated (venous )blood (Double Circulatory System) – permanent ventricular septum
  22. Further Adaptations of circulatory system
    • Changes in aortic arches
    • Three arches retained (Carotid, systemic, pulmonary - brain body lungs)
    • Coronary arteries –feed heart
  23. Vision
    • focuses light on retina
    • Flatter lenses than fishes, change shape to focus
  24. Derived features of vision
    • Eyelids
    • Glands that lubricate eye
    • Nasolacrimal duct, moist
  25. Hearing
    • Sound channeled through inner ear
    • Transmission of sound waves through chain of bones in middle ear (sound amplifier)
    • Organ of Corti – has hair cells that transmit sound info.to CNS
    • Amphibians – independent evolution of hearing
  26. Pathways for water loss
    • 1. Body surface
    • 2. Respiratory system
    • 3. Kidneys
  27. Water Conservation adaptations
    • Tetrapod ancestors = dermal scales
    • Outer layer composed of keratinized epidermal cells (keratin = insoluble protein + lipids to reduce water loss)
  28. Urogenital Ducts in Tetrapods
    Derived tetrapod feature =
  29. Urogenital Ducts in Tetrapods
    Derived amniote character =
    ureter (duct that drains kidney)
  30. Most Verts. = common openingfor urinary, digestive, andreproductive tracts, ___
  31. Only marsupials and placentals:
    Separate urogenital and digestive system openings;replaced cloaca
  32. Thermoregulation
    • Ectotherm “outside heat” – reptiles, amphibians vs.
    • Endotherm “inside heat” – birds, mammals
  33. Mechanisms for Gaining or Losing Heat
    • Solar Radiation
    • Thermal (infrared)radiation
    • Convection
    • Conduction
    • Evaporation
    • Metabolic heat production
  34. Ectothermy:
    • Eat less
    • Live in places where endotherm can’t survive
  35. Endothermy:
    • Live in cold climates and active at night
    • High Energy cost and food requirements

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ABS Exam 2 (4 - living on land)
2014-03-03 23:38:27
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