Sociology Chapter 3 (culture & Language)
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What is culture?
Totality learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
Includes ideas, values, customs, and artifacts of groups of people
What is the largest form of human groups?
What does culture influence?
Who created the culture industry?
What is culture industry?
Force that standardizes the goods and services demanded by consumers, and limits people choices
What is cultural universal?
Common practices and beliefs that all societies have developed
adaptations to meet essential human needs
What is ethnocetrism?
Tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represents the norm or is superior to others
What is cultural relativism?
People's behaviors from the perspective of their own culture
What is sociobiology?
Systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior
Sociobiology was founded by which theory?
Darmin's Theory of Evolution
What is innovation?
Process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture
What is discovery?
Making known an aspect of reality (oxygen)
What is invention?
Existing items are combined into form that did not exist before (bow & arrow)
What is Diffusion?
process by which cultural item spreads from group to group
What is McDonaldization?
Process through which principles of fast-food industry come to dominate society
Who created the McDonaldization?
What is technology?
information about how to use material resources to satisfy human needs
Who created the definition of technology?
What is material culture?
physical or technological aspects of daily lives
What is nonmaterial culture?
Ways of using material objects
What is cultural lag?
Period of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture struggles to adapt to new material conditions
Who created the definition of culture lag?
What is subculture?
Segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of language, norms, and values (football or soccer fans)
what is Argot?
The language that distinguishes a subculture from the wider society
What is counterculture?
Subculture that conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture (draft resistance during Vietnam war)
What is culture shock?
Feeling disoriented, uncertain, out of place, or fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture
What is language?
System of word and symbols for all aspects of culture
What is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis?
Language precedes thought, you need to learn a language in order to thing
Language is not a given, it is culturally determined
Language gives shape and color to the way we see the world
What is nonverbal communication?
Use of gestures, facial expressions, and other visual images to communicate
What are symbols?
gestures, objects, and words that form basis of human communication
What are norms?
Established standards of behavior maintained by a society
what are formal norms?
Generally written; they specify punishments and rewards
What are informal norms?
Generally understood, but not precisely recorded
What are mores?
Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society
What are folkways?
Norms governing everyday behavior
What are sanctions?
Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning social norm (or, norms about norms)
What are positive sanctions?
pay raises, medals, and words of grattitude
What are negative sanctions?
Fines, threats, imprisonment, and stares of contempt
What are cultural values?
Collective conceptions of what is good, desirable, and proper or bad, undesirable, and improper
Influence people's behavior
criteria for evaluating actions of others
values may change
cultural values may divide a society
What is cultural war?
Polarization of society over controversial cultural elements
What is dominant ideology?
Set of cultural beliefs and practices that help maintain powerful interests
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