CH 2 Cognitive Development

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keahi702
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264947
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CH 2 Cognitive Development
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2014-03-03 21:40:28
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psychology 307 cognitive development
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PSY 307
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CH 2 summary
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  1. A Definition of Development (p.30-32)

    What are the different kinds of development?
    Physical development, personal development, social development (changes in how people relate to others), and cognitive development
  2. A Definition of Development (p.30-32)

    What are three questions about development and three general principles?
    • Development shaped by nature or nurture
    • Change is continuous or in different stages

    Critical times for development of certain abilities

    Theorists generally agree that people develop at different rates, development is orderly process, development takes place gradually.
  3. The Brain and Cognitive Development (p. 32-42)

    What part of the brain is associated with higher mental functions?
    Cortex.  3 major functions: receiving signals from sense organs (visual or audio), controls movement, forms connection.
  4. The Brain and Cognitive Development (p. 32-42)

    How does the cortex develop?
    • 1st part that controls physical motor movement develops first.
    • 2nd senses like vision and hearing
    • 3rd frontal lobe-->higher order thinking processes
  5. The Brain and Cognitive Development (p. 32-42)

    What is lateralization and why is it important?
    Specialization of two sides of the brain.  Left is in charge of language, right is spatial and visual processing.  

    Both work together to understand and perform complex activities
  6. The Brain and Cognitive Development (p. 32-42)

    What are some implications for teachers?
    Brain activity during the learning process and the differences among people with different abilities
  7. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development (p.42-55)

    What are the main influences on cognitive development?
    People try to make sense of the world and create knowledge through experiences.

    Through this, knowledge develops through organization of thought (schemes) and through adaptation.

    Adaptation includes assimilation (incorporating into existing schemes) and accommodation (changing existing schemes).
  8. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development (p.42-55)

    What is a scheme?
    Schemes are basic building blocks of thinking.  They organize systems of actions or thoughts that allows us to think about objects and events.

    Example: grasping (idea of grasping), or a map of a city
  9. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development (p.42-55)

    What are Piaget's four stages in his theory of cognitive development?
    • Sensorimotor-explore world through senses and work towards object permanence and goal-directed activities
    • Preoperational-symbolic thinking and logical operations begin.  

    Concrete-operational-Demonstrate conservation, reversibility, classification, and seriation.

    Formal-operational-hypo-deductive reasoning
  10. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development (p.42-55)

    How do neo-Piagetian and information processing views explain changes in children's thinking over time?
    Neo-piagetian also look at attention, memory, and strategies and at how thinking develops in different domains like numbers or spatial relations.
  11. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development (p.42-55)

    What are some limitations of Piaget's theory?
    Children and adults often think in ways that are inconsistent with the notion of invariant stages.  

    Underestimated children's cognitive abilities (argued can't learn new operations must develop on their own)

    Overlooking cultural factors in child development
  12. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective (p. 55-60)

    According to Vygotsky, what are three main influences on cognitive development?
    Understand cultural settings

    1) Specific mental structures and processes can be traced to interactions with others

    2) Tools of culture like language are key to development

    3) zone of proximal development is the area where learning and development are possible
  13. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective (p. 55-60)

    What are psychological tools and why are they important?
    Signs an symbols systems like numbers, math systems, codes, and language that support learning and cognitive development.  

    They shape thinking

    Passed from adult to child through formal and informal interaction
  14. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective (p. 55-60)

    Explain how interpsychological development becomes intrapsychological development
    Children engage in activities with adults or peers and exchange ideas (interpsychological)

    they internalize these group ideas and develop ideas, attitudes, and values (intrapsychological) i.e. culture's influence
  15. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective (p. 55-60)

    What are the differences between Piaget's and Vygotsky's perspectives on private speech and its role in development?
    Vygotsky's sociocultural view argues that cog development relies on social interaction and the development of language.

    Vygotsky says self directed talk guides thinking an problem solving, Piaget says private speech is egocentrism

    Vygotstky emphsized significant role of adults and peers in children's learning
  16. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective (p. 55-60)

    What is a student's zone of proximal development?
    Area where child cannot solve a problem alone, but can be successful under adult guidance (or peer)
  17. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective (p. 55-60)

    What are two criticisms or limitations of Vygotsky's theory?
    Overemphasized role of social interaction in cog development (children figure a lot out on their own)

    He died young so he couldn't develop his theories more
  18. Implications of Piaget's and Vygotsky's Theories for Teachers (p. 60-64)

    What is the "problem of the match" described by Hunt?
    students must be neither bored by work that is too simple or left behind because they cannot understand.  

    Disequilibrium must be balanced to encourage growth.
  19. Implications of Piaget's and Vygotsky's Theories for Teachers (p. 60-64)

    What is active learning  Why is Piaget's theory of cognitive development consistent with active learning?
    Learning is a constructive process.  Incorporating information into own schemes is an active experience.  

    Students must act, manipulate, observe, and then talk/write about experience

    Concrete experiences provide raw materials for thining
  20. Implications of Piaget's and Vygotsky's Theories for Teachers (p. 60-64)

    What is assisted learning, and what role does scaffolding play?
    Guided participation in the classroom.  This requires scaffolding (understanding needs and giving information, prompts, reminders, and encouragement at the right time and right amounts.  Gradually let student do more on their own)

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