ABS Exam 2 (6-Lissamphibia)

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ABS Exam 2 (6-Lissamphibia)
2014-03-03 21:49:01
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  1. What is the Lissamphibia? ex?
    • Tetrapods with moist, scaleless skin
    • Caecilians 
    • Urodeles
    • Anurans
  2. Lissamphibia characteristics?
    • 4 legs
    • Adults are carnivores
    • Aquatic forms have immobile tongues while the terrestrial tongues can protrude to catch prey
    • Head size largely determines prey
    • Swim sinusoidally like fish (except frogs)
  3. Caecilians (Gymnophiona)
    • legless (limbless) burrowers
    • annulated bodies
    • reduced or absent tails
    • internal fertilization with phallodeum
    • scales
    • oviparous or viviparous
  4. Urodeles (salamanders)
    • elongated bodies
    • costal grooves
    • reduced limbs
    • frequentinternal fertilization
    • well developed tails.
  5. Anurans (frogs)
    • short bodies
    • reduced vertebrae
    • relatively large heads
    • elongated hind limbs
    • anterior attachment of tongue
    • no ribs
  6. Lissamphibia General characteristics
    • 2‐phase life history: Complete metamorphosis
    • external fertilization, amplexus
    • aquatic eggs and larva, adults vary
    • parental care eggs, larva
    • cutaneous respiration
    • Terrestrial adults have lungs
    • Aquatic larvae and paedomorphic forms have gills
    • Lungs employ force pumps ‐ they have no diaphragm
  7. Orders of extant lissamphibia from most diverse to least
    • Anura
    • Urodela
    • Gymnophiona
  8. Caecilians (Gymnophiona) 2 unique characters
    • Dermal scales in pockets in dermal folds
    • Protrusible tentacles between eye and nostril – sensory organ
  9. Salamander Diversity
    • Paedomorphosis
    • Cave-dwelling species
    • Terrestrial , lungless(e.g., slimy salamander)
  10. Nasolabial Groove of a Plethodontid Salamander
    picking up chemoreception of neighboring salamander
  11. Frogs have bright colors which show them as toxic, term used?
  12. Derived characters of anuran
    • Shortening of body, no ribs
    • Elongation of ilium
    • Fusion of posterior vertebrae to form the urostyle
  13. Difference Between a Frog and a Toad
    • More adapted to dry habitats (Leathery skin for water retention)
    • Brown coloration for camouflage
    • Skin has wart-like paratoid glands
    • Tend to walk more than hop
    • Bufonidae
  14. ___ glands are poison-secreting in toads
  15. Shared Derived Characters of Lissamphibians
    • Moist, permeable skin
    • Papilla amphibiorum
    • Operculum-columella complex
    • Green rods
    • Pedicellate teeth
    • Levator bulbi muscle
  16. Skin of Lissamphibians
    • Respiration
    • Storehouse for toxins
    • Warning and cryptic pigments
  17. Amphibian 3 types of skin glands
    • Mucous glands: maintain moist skin for respiration
    • Granular glands: toxic secretions
    • Hedonic glands: pheromones
  18. Papilla Amphibiorum
    • Special sensory area in inner ear
    • Papilla basillaris – sensitive to frequencies
  19. Opercullum-columella Complex
    • Bones involved in transmitting sounds to the inner ear
    • Transferring air waves into fluid waves and ground vibration into sound.
  20. Amphibian Vision
    • specialized visual cells in the retina.
    • Salamanders and frogs have ‘green’ rods in the retina (absent in caecilians and all other vertebrates).
  21. Distinct retinal cell
    Green Rods
  22. Pedicellate Teeth
    • Crown and base (pedicel) composed of dentine and separated by narrow zone of uncalcified dentine or fibrous connective tissue.
    • As crown wears, it breaks off and is replaced by a new one.
  23. Levator Bulbi Muscle
    • Thin sheet on floor of orbit
    • Innervated by the 5th cranial nerve
    • Causes eyes to bulge
    • Increased buccal cavity
  24. ___ used for internal fertilization in salamanders
  25. The Cost of Vocalization:
    Oxygen Consumption of a Calling Frog
  26. More “Chucks” means more females but also more ___ and parasites